Scientific Electromagnetic Field “EMF” Studies
KÃ¶nig (1974) and Wever (1974) prove that ELF EMR interacts with and interferes with human brains at extremely low field intensities.
Calcium Ion Homeostasis:
Blackman (1990) concludes that there is overwhelming evidence that EMR alters cellular calcium ion homeostasis, down to 0.08m W/cm2, Schwartz et al. (1990).
Fourteen studies show that RF/MW causes significant chromosome damage, four with dose response relationships and one recorded a dose related cell death rate; Heller and Teixeira-Pinto (1959), Tonascia and Tonascia (1996) [cited in Goldsmith (1997b)], Sagripanti and Swicord (1986), Garaj-Vrhovac et al. (1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1998), Maes et al. (1993), Timchenko and Ianchevskaia (1995), Balode (1996), Haider et al. (1994), Vijayalaxmi et al. (1997), Tice, Hook and McRee (1999).
DNA strand breakage:
Four independent laboratories observe significant DNA damage, including two for cell phone radiation, down to 1 m W/cm2, Phillips et al. (1998). Lai and Singh (1995, 1996, 1997), Sarkar, Ali and Behari (1994), Verschave et al. (1994), including a dose response relationship, Lai and Singh (1996).
Neoplastic Transformation of Cells:
Balcer-Kubiczek and Harrison (1991) observed a significant dose response in cells exposed to microwaves.
Two laboratories show that cell phone radiation significantly alters proto oncogene activity; Ivaschuk et al. (1997) and Goswami et al. (1999).
Fourteen studies show that EMR across the spectrum from ELF to RF/MW reduces melatonin in people.
Wang (1989) who found that workers who were more highly exposed to RF/MW had a dose-response increase in serotonin, and hence indicates a reduction in melatonin. Abelin (1999) reported significant reductions from SW radio exposure, Burch et al. (1997) with a combination of 60 Hz fields and cell phone use and Arnetz et al. (1996) with VDTs.
ELF exposure reduced melatonin in Wilson et al. (1990), Graham et al. (1994), Wood et al. (1998), Karasek et al. (1998), and Burch et al. (1997, 1998, 1999a), Juutilainen et al. (2000) and Graham et al. (2000); Pfluger et al. (1996)[16.7 Hz] and geomagnetic activity, Burch et al. (1999b).
Immune system impairment by EMR
Impairment of the immune system is related to calcium ion efflux, Walleczek (1992) and to reduced melatonin, Reiter and Robinson (1995). Cossarizza et al. (1993) showed that ELF fields increased both the spontaneous and PHA and TPA- induced production of interleukin-1 and IL-6 in human peripheral blood. Rats exposed to microwaves showed a significant reduction in splenic activity of natural killer (NK) cells, Nakamura et al. (1997).
Quan et al. (1992) showed that microwave heating of human breast milk highly significantly suppressed the specific immune system factors for E.Coli bacteria compared with conventional heating. Dmoch and Moszczynski (1998) found that microwave exposed workers had decreased NK cells and a lower value of the T-helper/T-suppressor ratio was found. Moszczynski et al. (1999) observed increased IgG and IgA and decreased lymphocytes and T8 cells in TV signal exposed workers.
Chronic, 25 year, exposure to an extremely low intensity (<0.1m W/cm2) 156-162 MHz, 24.4 Hz pulse frequency, radar signal in Latvia produced significant alterations in the immune system factors of exposed villagers, Bruvere et al. (1998).
Biological Mechanism Conclusions:
EMR is shown to alter cellular calcium ions, significantly increase chromosome aberrations, DNA strand breakage, neoplastic transformation of cells, reduce melatonin, enhance oncogene activity and impair the immune system. This is a coherent, consistent and overwhelming set of evidence to show that EMR is genotoxic.
When coupled with the epidemiological evidence of cancer, there is compelling evidence that EMR is genotoxic, and hence is carcinogenic and teratogenic.
Scientific Electromagnetic Field “EMF” Studies
Abelin, T., 1999: “Sleep disruption and melatonin reduction from exposure to a shortwave radio signal”. Seminar at Canterbury Regional Council, New Zealand. August 1999.
Adey, W.R., Byus, C.V., Cain, C.D., Higgins, R.J., Jones, R.A., Kean, C.J., Kuster, N., MacMurray, A., Stagg, R.B., Zimmerman, G., Phillips, J.L. and Haggren, W., 1999: “Spontaneous and nitrosourea-induced primary tumors of the central nervous system in Fischer 344 rats chronically exposed to 836 MHz modulated microwaves”. Radiation Research 152(3): 293-302.
Alberts, E.N., 1977: “Light and electron microscopic observations on the blood-brain barrier after microwave irradiation. In Symposium on Biological effects and measurement of Radio Frequency/Microwaves, HEW Publication (FDA) 77-8026, pp 294-309.
Alberts, E.N., 1978: “Reversibility of microwave induced blood-brain barrier permeability”. Radio Science Supplement.
Altpeter, E.S., Krebs, Th., Pfluger, D.H., von Kanel, J., Blattmann, R., et al., 1995: “Study of health effects of Shortwave Transmitter Station of Schwarzenburg, Berne, Switzerland”. University of Berne, Institute for Social and Preventative Medicine, August 1995.
Altamura G, Toscano S, Gentilucci G, Ammirati F, Castro A, Pandozi C, Santini M, 1997: “Influence of digital and analogue cellular telephones on implanted pacemakers”. Eur Heart J 18(10): 1632-4161.
Arnetz, B.B. and Berg, M., 1996: “Melatonin and Andrenocorticotropic Hormone levels in video display unit workers during work and leisure. J Occup Med 38(11): 1108-1110.
Balcer-Kubiczek, E.K. and Harrison, G.H., 1991: “Neoplastic transformation of C3H/10T1/2 cells following exposure to 120Hz modulated 2.45 GHz microwaves and phorbol ester tumor promoter”. Radiation Research, 125: 65-72.
Balode, Z., 1996: “Assessment of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation by the micronucleus test in Bovine peripheral erythrocytes”. The Science of the Total Environment, 180: 81-86.
Barbaro V, Bartolini P, Donato A, Militello C, 1996: “Electromagnetic interference of analog cellular telephones with pacemakers”. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 19(10): 1410-1418.
Baris, D. and Armstrong, B., 1990: “Suicide among electric utility workers in England and Wales”. Br J Indust Med 47:788-789.
Bawin, S.M. and Adey, W.R., 1976: “Sensitivity of calcium binding in cerebral tissue to weak electric fields oscillating at low frequency”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 73: 1999-2003.
Beall, C., Delzell, E., Cole, P., and Brill, I., 1996: “Brain tumors among electronics industry workers”. Epidemiology, 7(2): 125-130.
Blackman, C.F., Benane, S.G., Elliott, D.J., and Pollock, M.M., 1988: “Influence of Electromagnetic Fields on the Efflux of Calcium Ions from Brain Tissue in Vitro: A Three-Model Analysis Consistent with the Frequency Response up to 510 Hz”. Bioelectromagnetics, 9:215-227.
Blackman, C.F., Kinney, L.S., House, D.E., and Joines, W.T., 1989: “Multiple power-density windows and their possible origin”. Bioelectromagnetics, 10: 115-128.
Blackman, C.F., 1990: “ELF effects on calcium homeostasis”. In “Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields: The question of cancer”, BW Wilson, RG Stevens, LE Anderson Eds, Publ. Battelle Press Columbus: 1990; 187-208.
Borbely, AA, Huber, R, Graf, T, Fuchs, B, Gallmann, E, Achermann, P, 1999: Pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field affects human sleep and sleep electroencephalogram. Neurosci Lett 275(3):207-210.
Bortkiewicz, A., Zmyslony, M., Palczynski, C., Gadzicka, E. and Szmigielski, S., 1995: “Dysregulation of autonomic control of cardiac function in workers at AM broadcasting stations (0.738-1.503 MHz)”. Electro- and Magnetobiology 14(3): 177-191.
Bortkiewicz, A., Gadzicka, E. and Zmyslony, M., 1996: “Heart rate in workers exposed to medium-frequency electromagnetic fields”. J Auto Nerv Sys 59: 91-97.
Bortkiewicz, A., Zmyslony, M., Gadzicka, E., Palczynski, C. and Szmigielski, S., 1997: “Ambulatory ECG monitoring in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields”. J Med Eng and Tech 21(2):41-46.
Braune, S, Wrocklage, C, Raczek, J, Gailus, T, Lucking, CH, 1998: Resting blood pressure increase during exposure to a radio-frequency electromagnetic field. Lancet 351(9119):1857-1858.
Brueve, R., Feldmane, G., Heisele, O., Volrate, A. and Balodis, V., 1998: “Several immune system functions of the residents from territories exposed to pulse radio-frequency radiation”. Presented to the Annual Conference of the ISEE and ISEA, Boston Massachusetts July 1998.
Burch, J.B., Reif, J.S., Pittrat, C.A., Keefe, T.J. and Yost, M.G., 1997: “Cellular telephone use and excretion of a urinary melatonin metabolite”. In: Annual review of Research in Biological Effects of electric and magnetic fields from the generation, delivery and use of electricity, San Diego, CA, Nov. 9-13, P-52.
Burch, J.B., Reif, J.S., Yost, M.G., Keefe, T.J. and Pittrat, C.A., 1998: “Nocturnal excretion of urinary melatonin metabolite among utility workers”. Scand J Work Environ Health 24(3): 183-189.
Burch, J.B., Reif, J.S., Yost, M.G., Keefe, T.J. and Pittrat, C.A., 1999a: “Reduced excretion of a melatonin metabolite among workers exposed to 60 Hz magnetic fields” Am J Epidemiology 150(1): 27-36.
Burch, J.B., Reif, J.S. and Yost, M.G., 1999b: “Geomagnetic disturbances are associated with reduced nocturnal excretion of melatonin metabolite in humans”. Neurosci Lett 266(3):209-212.
Burch, J.B., Reif, J.S., Noonan, C.W. and Yost, M.G., 2000: “Melatonin metabolite levels in workers exposed to 60-Hz magnetic fields: work in substations and with 3-phase conductors”. J of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 42(2): 136-142.
Byus, C.V., Kartun, K., Pieper, S. and Adey, W.R., 1988: “Increased ornithine decarboxylase activity in cultured cells exposed to low energy modulated microwave fields and phorbol ester tumor promoters”. Cancer research, 48(15): 4222-4226.
Cantor, K.P., Stewart, P.A., Brinton, L.A., and Dosemeci, M., 1995: “Occupational exposures and female breast cancer mortality in the United States”. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 37(3): 336-348.
Chen WH, Lau CP, Leung SK, Ho DS, Lee IS, 1996: “Interference of cellular phones with implanted permanent pacemakers”. Clin Cardiol 19(11): 881-886.
Cossarizza, A., Angioni, S., Petraglia, F., Genazzani, A.R., Monti, D., Capri, M., Bersani, F., Cadossi, R. and Franceschi, C., 1993: “Exposure to low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields increases interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells”. Exp Cell Res 204(2):385-387.
Daniells, C, Duce, I, Thomas, D, Sewell, P, Tattersall, J, de Pomerai, D, 1998: “Transgenic nematodes as biomonitors of microwave-induced stress”. Mutat Res 399: 55-64.
Dasdag, S, Ketani, MA, Akdag, Z, Ersay, AR, Sar,i I, Demirtas ,OC, Celik, MS, 1999: Whole-body microwave exposure emitted by cellular phones and testicular function of rats. Urol Res 27(3):219-223.
Davis, R.L. and Mostofl, 1993: “Cluster of testicular cancer in police officers exposed to hand-held radar”. Am. J. Indust. Med. 24: 231-233.
Deroche, M., 1971: ” Etude des perturbations biologiques chez les techniciens O.R.T.F. dans certains champs electromagnetiques de haute frequence”. Arch Mal. Prof, 32: 679-683.
De Mattei, M., Caruso, A., Traina, G.C., Pezzetti, F., Baroni, T., and Sollazzo, V., 1999: “Correlation between pulsed electromagnetic fields exposure time and cell proliferation increase in human osteosarcoma cell lines and human normal osteoblast cells in vitro”. Bioelectromagnetics 20: 177-182.
De Pomerai, D., Daniells, C., David, H., Duce, I., Mutwakil, M., Thomas, D., Sewell, P., Tattersall, J., Jones, D., and candido, P., 2000: “Non-thermal heat-shock response to microwaves”. Nature May 25,
de Seze R, Fabbro-Peray P, Miro L, 1998: GSM radiocellular telephones do not disturb the secretion of antepituitary hormones in humans. Bioelectromagnetics 19(5):271-8.
Dmoch, A. and Moszczynski, P., 1998: “Levels of immunoglobulin and subpopulations of T lymphocytes and NK cells in men occupationally exposed to microwave radiation in frequencies of 6-12GHz”. Med Pr 49(1):45-49.
Dolk, H., Shaddick, G., Walls, P., Grundy, C., Thakrar, B., Kleinschmidt, I. and Elliott, P., 1997a: “Cancer incidence near radio and television transmitters in Great Britain, I – Sutton-Colfield transmitter”. American J. of Epidemiology, 145(1):1-9.
Dolk, H., Elliott, P., Shaddick, G., Walls, P., Grundy, C., and Thakrar, B.,1997b: “Cancer incidence near radio and television transmitters in Great Britain, II All high power transmitters”. American J. of Epidemiology, 145(1):10-17.
Donnellan M, McKenzie DR, French PW, 1997: Effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation at 835 MHz on growth, morphology and secretory characteristics of a mast cell analogue, RBL-2H3. Cell Biol Int 21:427-439.
Eulitz, C, Ullsperger, P, Freude, G, Elbert ,T, 1998: Mobile phones modulate response patterns of human brain activity. Neuroreport 9(14):3229-3232.
Fesenko, EE, Makar, VR, Novoselova, EG, Sadovnikov, VB, 1999: Microwaves and cellular immunity. I. Effect of whole body microwave irradiation on tumor necrosis factor production in mouse cells. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 49(1):29-35.
Forman, S.A., Holmes, C.K., McManamon, T.V., and Wedding, W.R., 1982: “Physiological Symptoms and Intermittent Hypertension following acute microwave exposure”. J. of Occup. Med. 24(11): 932-934.
Freude, G, Ullsperger, P, Eggert ,S, Ruppe, I, 1998: Effects of microwaves emitted by cellular phones on human slow brain potentials. Bioelectromagnetics 19(6):384-387.
French PW, Donnellan M, McKenzie DR, 1997: Electromagnetic radiation at 835 MHz changes the morphology and inhibits proliferation of a human astrocytoma cell line. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 43:13-18.
Freude, G, Ullsperger, P, Eggert, S, Ruppe, I, 2000: Microwaves emitted by cellular telephones affect human slow brain potentials. Eur J Appl Physiol 81(1-2):18-27.
Frey, A.H., Feld, S.R. and Frey. B., 1975: “Neural function and behavior: defining the relationship in biological effects of nonionizing radiation”. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 247: 433-438.
Frey, A.H., 1998: “Headaches from cellular telephones: are they real and what are the impacts”. Environ Health Perspect 106(3):101-103.
Fritze K, Wiessner C, Kuster N, Sommer C, Gass P, Hermann DM, Kiessling M, Hossmann KA, 1997: Effect of global system for mobile communication microwave exposure on the genomic response of the rat brain. Neuroscience 81(3):627-639.
Garaj-Vrhovac, V., Fucic, A, and Horvat, D., 1990: “Comparison of chromosome aberration and micronucleus induction in human lymphocytes after occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer and microwave radiation”., Periodicum Biologorum, Vol 92, No.4, pp 411-416.
Garaj-Vrhovac, V., Horvat, D. and Koren, Z., 1991: “The relationship between colony-forming ability, chromosome aberrations and incidence of micronuclei in V79 Chinese Hamster cells exposed to microwave radiation”. Mutat Res 263: 143-149.
Garaj-Vrhovac, V., Fucic, A, and Horvat, D., 1992: The correlation between the frequency of micronuclei and specific aberrations in human lymphocytes exposed to microwave radiation in vitro”. Mutation Research, 281: 181-186.
Garaj-Vrhovac, V., and Fucic, A., 1993: “The rate of elimination of chromosomal aberrations after accidental exposure to microwave radiation”. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, 30:319-325.
Garaj-Vrhovac, V., 1999: “Micronucleus assay and lymphocyte mitotic activity in risk assessment of occupational exposure to microwave radiation. Chemosphere 39(13): 2301-2312.
Goldsmith, J.R., 1997a: “TV Broadcast Towers and Cancer: The end of innocence for Radiofrequency exposures”. Am. J. Industrial Medicine 32 : 689-692.
Goldsmith, J.R., 1997b: “Epidemiologic evidence relevant to radar (microwave) effects”. Environmental Health Perspectives, 105 (Suppl 6): 1579-1587.
Gordon, Z.V., 1966: “Problems of industrial hygiene and the biological effects of electromagnetic superhigh frequency fields”. Moscow Medicina [In Russian] English translation in NASA Rept TT-F-633, 1976.
Goswami, P.C., Albee, L.D., Parsian, A.J., Baty, J.D., Moros, E.G., Pickard, W.F., Roti Roti, J.L. and Hunt, C.R., 1999: “Proto-oncogene mRNA levels and activities of multiple transcription factors in C3H 10T 1/2 murine embryonic fibroblasts exposed to 835.62 and 847.74 MHz cellular telephone communication frequency radiation”. Radiat Res 151(3): 300-309.
Graham, C., Cook, M.R., Cohen, H.D. and Gerkovich, M.M., 1994: “A dose response study of human exposure to 60Hz electric and magnetic fields”. Bioelectromagnetics 15: 447-463.
Graham, C., Cook, M.R., Sastre, A., Riffle, D.W. and Gerkovich, M.M., 2000: “Multi-night exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields: effects on melatonin and its enzymatic metabolite”. J Pineal Res 28(1): 1-8.
Grayson, J.K., 1996: “Radiation Exposure, Socioeconomic Status, and Brain Tumour Risk in the US Air Force: A nested Case-Control Study”. American J. of Epidemiology, 143 (5), 480-486.
Haider, T., Knasmueller, S., Kundi, M, and Haider, M., 1994: “Clastogenic effects of radiofrequency radiation on chromosomes of Tradescantia”. Mutation Research, 324:65-68.
Hamburger, S., Logue, J.N., and Sternthal, P.M., 1983: “Occupational exposure to non-ionizing radiation and an association with heart disease: an exploratory study”. J Chronic Diseases, Vol 36, pp 791-802.
Hammett and Edison Inc., 1997: “Engineering analysis of radio frequency exposure conditions with addition of digital TV channels”. Prepared for Sutra Tower Inc., San Francisco, California, January 3, 1997.
Hanson Mild, K, Oftedal, G, Sandstrom, M, Wilen, J, Tynes, T, Haugsdal, B, Hauger E, 1998: Comparison of symptoms experienced by users of analogue and digital mobile phones: a Swedish-Norwegian epidemiological study. Arbetslivsrapport 23.
Hardell, L, Reizenstein, J, Johansson, B, Gertzen, H, Mild, KH, 1999: Angiosarcoma of the scalp and use of a cordless (portable) telephone. Epidemiology 10(6):785-786.
Hardell, L, Nasman, A, Pahlson, A, Hallquist, A, Hansson Mild, K, 1999: Use of cellular telephones and the risk for brain tumours: A case-control study. Int J Oncol 15(1):113-116.
Hardell, L, Nasman, A, Hallquist, A, 2000: “Case-control study of radiology work, medical X-ray investigations and use of cellular telephones as risk factors”. J of General Medicine. <www.medscape.com/Medscape/GeneralMedicine/journal/2000/v02.n03/>
Hayes, R.B., Morris Brown, L., Pottern, L.M., Gomez, M., Kardaun, J.W.P.F., Hoover, R.N., O’Connell, K.J., Sutsman, R.E. and Nasser, J., 1990: Occupational and Risk for Testicular Cancer: A Case Control Study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 19, No.4, pp 825-831.
Heller, J.H., and Teixeira-Pinto, A.A., 1959: “A new physical method of creating chromosome aberrations”. Nature, Vol 183, No. 4665, March 28, 1959, pp 905-906.
Hladky, A, Musil, J, Roth, Z, Urban, P, Blazkova, V, 1999: Acute effects of using a mobile phone on CNS functions. Cent Eur J Public Health 7(4):165-167.
Hocking, B., Gordon, I.R., Grain, H.L., and Hatfield, G.E., 1996: “Cancer incidence and mortality and proximity to TV towers”. Medical Journal of Australia, Vol 165, 2/16 December, pp 601-605.
Hocking, B, 1998: Preliminary report: symptoms associated with mobile phone use. Occup Med (Lond);48(6):357-360.
Hofgartner F, Muller T, Sigel H, 1996: “Could C- and D-network mobile phones endanger patients with pacemakers?”. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 121(20): 646-652,. [Article in German]
Ivaschuk, O.I., Jones, R.A., Ishida-Jones, T., Haggren, Q., Adey, W.R. and Phillips, J.L., 1997: “Exposure of nerve growth factor-treated PC12 rat pheochromscytoma cells to a modulated radiofrequency field at 836.55 MHz: effects on c-jun and c-fos expression”. Bioelectromagnetics 18(3): 223-229.
Jacobson, C.B., 1969: Progress report on SCC 31732, (Cytogenic analysis of blood from the staff at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow), George Washington University, Reproductive Genetics Unit, Dept. of Obstertics and Genocolgy, February 4, 1969.
Johnson-Liakouris, A.J.. 1998: “Radiofrequency (RF) Sickness in the Lilienfeld Study: an effect of modulated microwaves”. Arch Environ Heath 53(3):236-238.
Jones, L.F., 1933: “A study of the propagation of wavelengths between three and eight meters. Proc. of the Institute of Radio Engineers 21(3): 349-386.
Jordan, E.C., (Ed), 1985: “Reference data for engineers: Radio, Electronics, Computer and Communications, 7th Edition”. Publ. Howard W. Sams & CO., Indianapolis.
Juutilainen, J., Stevens, R.G., Anderson, L.E., Hansen, N.H., Kilpelainen, M., Laitinen, J.T., Sobel, E. and Wilson, B.W., 2000: “Nocturnal 6-hydroxymelatonin sulphate excretion in female workers exposed to magnetic fields”. J Pineal Res 28(2): 97-104.
Kallen, B., Malmquist, G., and Moritz, U., 1982: “Delivery Outcome among Physiotherapists in Sweden: is Non-ionizing Radiation a Fetal Hazard? Archives of Environmental Health, 37(2): 81-84.
Karasek, M., Woldanska-Okonska, M., Czernicki, J., Zylinska, K. and Swietoslawski, J., 1998: “Chronic exposure to 2.9 mT, 40 Hz magnetic field reduces melatonin concentrations in humans”. J Pineal Research 25(4): 240-244.
Kellenyi, L, Thuroczy, G, Faludy, B, Lenard, L, 1999: Effects of mobile GSM radiotelephone exposure on the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Neurobiology 7:79-81.
Khudnitskii, SS, Moshkarev, EA, Fomenko, TV, 1999: [On the evaluation of the influence of cellular phones on their users]. [Article in Russian] Med Tr Prom Ekol (9):20-24.
Kolomytkin, O., Kuznetsov, V., Yurinska, M, Zharikova, A., and Zharikov, S., 1994: “Response of brain receptor systems to microwave energy exposure”. pp 195-206 in “On the nature of electromagnetic field interactions with biological systems”, Ed Frey, A.H., Publ. R.G. Landes Co.
Koivisto, M, Revonsuo, A, Krause, C, Haarala, C, Sillanmaki, L, Laine, M, Hamalainen, H, 2000: Effects of 902 MHz electromagnetic field emitted by cellular telephones on response times in humans. Neuroreport 11(2):413-415.
Kolodynski, A.A. and Kolodynska, V.V., 1996: “Motor and psychological functions of school children living in the area of the Skrunda Radio Location Station in Latvia”. The Science of the Total Environment, Vol 180, pp 87-93.
KÃ¶nig HL. 1974, Behavioural changes in human subjects associated with ELF electric fields. In Persinger MA, editor. ELF and VLF electromagnetic field effects. New York, Plenum Press.
Krause, C.M., Sillanmaki, L., Koivisto, M., Haggqvist, A., Saarela, C., Revonsuo, A., Laine, M. and Hamalainen H., 2000: “Effects of electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on the EEG during a memory task”. Neuroreport 11(4): 761-764.
Kwee, S, Raskmark, P, 1997: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and cell proliferation. Presented at the Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, Bologna, Italy, June.
Lai, H. and Singh, N.P., 1995: “Acute low-intensity microwave exposure increases DNA single-strand breaks in rat brain cells”. Bioelectromagnetics, Vol 16, pp 207-210, 1995.
Lai, H. and Singh, N.P., 1996: “Single- and double-strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells after acute exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation”. Int. J. Radiation Biology, 69 (4): 513-521.
Lai, H., and Singh, N.P., 1997: “Melatonin and Spin-Trap compound Block Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation-induced DNA Strands Breaks in Rat Brain Cells.” Bioelectromagnetics, 18:446-454.
Lamble D, Kauranen T, Laakso M, Summala H, 1999: “Cognitive load and detection thresholds in car following situations: safety implications for using mobile (cellular) telephones while driving”. Accid Anal Pre ;31(6):617-623.
Larsen, A.I., Olsen, J., and Svane, O., 1991: “Gender specific reproductive outcome and exposure to high frequency electromagnetic radiation among physiotherapists”. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health, Vol.17, pp 324-329.
Lilienfeld, A.M., Tonascia, J., and Tonascia S., Libauer, C.A., and Cauthen, G.M., 1978: “Foreign Service health status study – evaluation of health status of foreign service and other employees from selected eastern European posts”. Final Report (Contract number 6025-619073) to the U.S. Dept of State, July 31, 1978.
Lilienfeld, A.M., 1983: “Practical limitations of epidemiologic method”. Environmental Health Perspectives, 52:3-8.
Lindbohm, M-L,, Hietanen, M., Kyyronen, P., Sallmen, M., von Nandelstadh, P., Taskinen, H., Pekkarinen, M., Ylikoski, M. and Hemminki, K., 1992: “Magnetic fields of video display terminals and spontaneous abortion”. Am J Epidemiol 136:1041-1051.
Litovitz, T.A., Krause, D., Penafiel, M., Elson, E.C. and Mullins, J.M., 1993: “The role of coherence time in the effect of microwaves on ornithine decarboxylase activity”. Bioelectromagnetics 14(5): 395-403.
Maes, A., Verschaeve, L., Arroyo, A., De Wagter, C. and Vercruyssen, L., 1993: “In vitro effects of 2454 MHz waves on human peripheral blood lymphocytes”. Bioelectromagnetics 14: 495-501.
Maes, A., Collier, M., Slaets, D., and Verschaeve, L., 1996: “954 MHz Microwaves enhance the mutagenic properties of Mitomycin C”. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 28: 26-30.
Maes A, Collier M, Van Gorp U, Vandoninck S, Verschaeve L, 1997: Cytogenetic effects of 935.2-MHz (GSM) microwaves alone and in combination with mitomycin C. Mutat Res 393(1-2): 151-156.
Mann, K, Roschke, J, 1996: Effects of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on human sleep. Neuropsychobiology 33(1):41-47.
Maskarinec, G. Cooper, J. and Swygert, L., 1994: “Investigation of increased incidence in childhood leukemia near radio towers in Hawaii: Preliminary observations”. J. Environ Pathol Toxicol and Oncol 13(1): 33-37.
McKenzie, D.R., Yin, Y. and Morrell, S., 1998: “Childhood incidence of acute lymhoblastic leukaemia and exposure to broadcast radiation in Sydney – a second look”. Aust NZ J Pub Health 22 (3): 360-367.
Michelozzi, P., Ancona, C., Fusco, D., Forastiere, F. and Perucci, C.A., 1998: “Risk of leukamia and residence near a radio transmitter in Italy”. ISEE/ISEA 1998 Conference, Boston Mass. Paper 354 P., Abstract in Epidemiology 9(4):S111.
Mild, K.H., Oftedal, G., Sandstrom, M., Wilen, J., Tynes, T., Haugsdal, B. and Hauger E., 1998: “Comparison of symptoms by users of analogue and digital mobile phones – A Swedish-Norwegian epidemiological study”. National Institute for working life, 1998:23, Umea, Sweden, 84pp.
Milham, S., 1982: “Mortality from leukemia in workers exposed to electric and magnetic fields”. New England J. of Med., 307: 249-250.
Milham, S., 1985: “Silent Keys”, Lancet 1, 815, 1985.
Milham S., 1985: “Mortality in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields. Environ Health Perspectives 62:297-300.
Milham, S., 1988: “Increased mortality in amateur radio operators due to lymphatic and hematopoietic malignancies”. Am. J. Epidemiology, Vol 127, No.1, pp 50-54.
Milham, S., 1996: “Increased incidence of cancer in a cohort of office workers exposed to strong magnetic fields”. Am. J. Ind. Med. 30(6): 702-704.
Moscovici, B., Lavyel, A. and Ben Itzhac, D., 1974: “Exposure to electromagnetic radiation among workers”. Family Physician 3(3): 121.
Moszczynski, P., Lisiewicz, J., Dmoch, A., Zabinski, Z., Bergier, L., Rucinska, M. and Sasiadek, U., 1999: “The effect of various occupational exposures to microwave radiation on the concentrations of immunoglobulins and T lymphocyte subsets”. Wiad Lek 52(1-2):30-34.
Nakamura, H., Seto,T., Nagase, H., Yoshida, M., Dan, S. and Ogina, K., 1997: “Effects of exposure to microwaves on cellular immunity and placental steroids in pregnant rats. Occup Environ Med 54(9):676-680.
Naegeli B, Osswald S, Deola M, Burkart F, 1996: “Intermittent pacemaker dysfunction caused by digital mobile telephones”. J Am Coll Cardiol 27(6):1471-1477.
Occhetta E, Plebani L, Bortnik M, Sacchetti G, Trevi G, 1999: “Implantable cardioverter defibrillators and cellular telephones: is there any interference?”. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 22(7): 983-989.
Oscar, K.J. and Hawkins, T.D., 1997: “Microwaves alteration of the blood-brain barrier system of rats”. Brain Research 126: 281-293.
Ouellet-Hellstrom, R. and Stewart, W.F., 1993: “Miscarriages among Female Physical Therapists who report using radio- and microwave- frequency electromagnetic radiation.” American J. of Epidemiology, 138 (10): 775-86.
Persson, B.R.R., Salford, L.G. and Brun, A., 1997: “Blood-brain barrier permeability in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields used in wireless communication”. Wireless Network 3: 455-461.
Penafiel, L.M., Litovitz, T., Krause, D., Desta, A. and Mullins, J.M., 1997: “Role of modulation on the effect of microwaves on ornithine decarboxylase activity in L929 cells”. Bioelectromagnetics 18(2): 132-141.
Perry, F.S., Reichmanis, M., Marino, A. and Becker, R.O., 1981: “Environmental power-frequency magnetic fields and suicide”. Health Phys 41(2): 267-277.
Pfluger, D.M. and Minder, C.E., 1996: “Effects of 16.7 Hz magnetic fields on urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion of Swiss railway workers”. J Pineal Research 21(2): 91-100.
Phelan, A.M., Lange, D.G., Kues, H.A, and Lutty, G.A., 1992: “Modification of membrane fluidity in Melanin-containing cells by low-level microwave radiation”. Bioelectromagnetics 13: 131-146.
Philips, J.L., Haggren, W., Thomas, W.J., Ishida-Jones, T. and Adey, W.R., 1992: “Magnetic field-induced changes in specific gene transcription”. Biochem Biophys Acta 1132(2): 140-144.
Philips, J.L., Haggren, W., Thomas, W.J., Ishida-Jones, T. and Adey, W.R., 1993: “Effect of 72 Hz pulsed magnetic field exposure on ras p21 expression in CCRF-CEM cells”. Cancer Biochem Biophys 13(3): 187-193.
Phillips, J.L., Ivaschuk, O., Ishida-Jones, T., Jones, R.A., Campbell-Beachler, M. and Haggnen, W.,1998: “DNA damage in molt-4 T-lymphoblastoid cells exposed to cellular telephone radiofrequency fields in vitro”. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 45: 103-110.
Pollack, H., 1979: “Epidemiologic data on American personnel in the Moscow Embassy”, Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med, 55(11): 1182-1186.
Pollack, H., 1979a: “The microwave syndrome”, Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med, 55(11): 1240-1243.
Preece, AW, Iwi, G, Davies-Smith, A, Wesnes, K, Butler, S, Lim, E, Varey, A, 1999: Effect of a 915-MHz simulated mobile phone signal on cognitive function in man. Int J Radiat Biol 75(4):447-456.
Quan, R., Yang, C., Rubinstein, S., Lewiston, N.J., Sunshine, P., Stevenson, D.K. and Kerner, J.A., 1992: “Effects of microwave radiation on anti-infective factors in human milk”. Pediatrics 89(4):667-669.
Reiter, R.J., 1994: “Melatonin suppression by static and extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields: relationship to the reported increased incidence of cancer”. Reviews on Environmental Health. 10(3-4): 171-86, 1994.
Reiter, R.J. and Robinson, J, 1995: “Melatonin: Your body’s natural wonder drug”. Publ. Bantam Books, New York.
Repacholi, MH, Basten, A, Gebski, V, Noonan, D, Finnie, J, Harris, AW, 1997: Lymphomas in E mu-Pim1 transgenic mice exposed to pulsed 900 MHZ electromagnetic fields. Radiat Res 147(5):631-640.
Robinette, C.D., Silverman, C. and Jablon, S., 1980: “Effects upon health of occupational exposure to microwave radiation (radar)”. American Journal of Epidemiology, 112(1):39-53, 1980.
Rosen, L.A., Barber, I. and Lyle D.B., 1998: “A 0.5 G, 60 HZ magnetic field suppresses melatonin production in pinealocytes”. Bioelectromagnetics 19: 123-127.
Rothman KJ, Loughlin JE, Funch DP, Dreyer NA.,1996: Overall mortality of cellular telephone customers. Epidemiology 7:303-305.
Sagripanti, J. and Swicord, M.L., 1976: DNA structural changes caused by microwave radiation. Int. J. of Rad. Bio., 50(1), pp 47-50, 1986.
Salford, L.G., Brun, A., Sturesson, K., Eberhardt, J.L. and Persson, B.R.R., 1994: Permeability of the Blood-Brain Barrier induced by 915 MHz electromagnetic radiation, continuous wave and modulated at 8, 16, 50 and 200 Hz.
Sarkar, S., Ali S, and Behari, J., 1994: “Effect of low power microwave on the mouse genome: A direct DNA analysis”. Mutation Research, 320: 141-147.
Savitz, D.A., Checkoway, H. and Loomis, D.P., 1998a: “Magnetic field exposure and neurodegenerative disease mortality among electric utility workers”. Epidemiology 9(4):398-404.
Savitz, D.A,, Loomis, D.P. and Tse, C.K., 1998b: “Electrical occupations and neurodegenerative disease: analysis of U.S. mortality data”. Arch Environ Health 53(1): 71-74.
Savitz, D.A., Liao, D., Sastre, A., Klecjner, R.C., and Kavet, R., 1999: “Magnetic field exposure and cardiovascular disease mortality among electric utility workers”. Am. J. Epidemiology, 149(2): 135-142.
Schlegel RE, Grant FH, Raman S, Reynolds D 1998: “Electromagnetic compatibility study of the in-vitro interaction of wireless phones with cardiac pacemakers”. Biomed Instrum Technol 32(6): 645-655.
Schwartz,, J.L., House, D.E., and Mealing, A.R., 1990: “Exposure of frog hearts to CW or amplitude modulated VHF fields: selective efflux of calcium ions at 16 Hz.” Bioelectromagnetics, 11: 349-358.
Selvin, S., Schulman, J. and Merrill, D.W., 1992: “Distance and risk measures for the analysis of spatial data: a study of childhood cancers”. Soc. Sci. Med., 34(7):769-777.
Shandala, M.G., Dumanskii, U.D., Rudnev, M.I., Ershova, L.K., and Los I.P., 1979: “Study of Non-ionising Microwave Radiation Effects on the Central Nervous System and Behavior Reactions”. Environmental Health Perspectives, 30:115-121.
Sobel, E., Davanipour, Z., Sulkava, R., Erkinjuntti, T., Wikstrom, J., Henderson, V.W., Bucjwalter, G., Bowman, D. and Lee, P-J., 1995: “Occupations with exposure to electromagnetic fields: a possible risk factor for Alzheimer’s Disease”. Am J Epidemiol 142(5): 515-524.
Sobel, E., Dunn, M., Davanipour, D.V.M., Qian, M.S. and Chui, M.D., 1996: “Elevated risk of Alzheimer’s disease among workers with likely electromagnetic field exposure. Neurology 47(12): 1477-1481.
Schirmacher, A, Bahr, A, Kullnick, U, Stoegbauer, F, 1999: Electromagnetic fields (1.75 GHz) influence the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in cell culture model. Presented at the Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, St. Pete Beach, FL, June.
Stark, K.D.C., Krebs, T., Altpeter, E., Manz, B., Griol, C. and Abelin, T., 1997: “Absence of chronic effect of exposure to short-wave radio broadcast signal on salivary melatonin concentrations in dairy cattle”. J Pineal Research 22: 171-176.
Szmigielski, S., 1996: “Cancer morbidity in subjects occupationally exposed to high frequency (radiofrequency and microwave) electromagnetic radiation”. Science of the Total Environment, Vol 180, 1996, pp 9-17.
Szmigielski, S., Bortkiewicz, A., Gadzicka, E., Zmyslony, M. and Kubacki, R., 1998: “Alteration of diurnal rhythms of blood pressure and heart rate to workers exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields”. Blood Press. Monit, 3(6): 323-330.
Thomas, T.L., Stolley, P.D., Stemhagen, A., Fontham, E.T.H., Bleecker, M.L., Stewart, P.A., and Hoover, R.N., 1987: “Brain tumor mortality risk among men with electrical and electronic jobs: A case-control study”. J. Nat. Canc. Inst., Vol 79, No.2, pp 233-238., August 1987.
Tice R, Hook G, McRee DI., 1999: “Chromosome aberrations from exposure to cell phone radiation”. Microwave News, Jul/Aug (1999) p7.
Timchenko, O.I., and Ianchevskaia, N.V., 1995: “The cytogenetic action of electromagnetic fields in the short-wave range”. Psychopharmacology Series, Jul-Aug;(7-8):37-9.
Trigano AJ, Azoulay A, Rochdi M, Campillo, A., 1999: “Electromagnetic interference of external pacemakers by walkie-talkies and digital cellular phones: experimental study. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 22(4 Pt 1): 588-593.
Tonascia, J.A. and Tonascia, S., 1969: “Hematological Study: progress report on SCC 31732”, George Washington University, Department of Obstectrics and Gynecology, February 4, 1969.
Tynes, T., Hannevik, M., Anderson, A., Vistnes, A.I. and Haldorsen, T., 1996: “Incidence of breast cancer in Norewegian female radio and telegraph operators”. Cancer causes Control., 7(2): 197-204.
Van Wijngaarden, E., Savitz, D.A., Kleckner, R.C., Dai, J. and Loomis, D., 2000: “Exposure to electromagnetic fields and suicide among electric utility workers: a nested case-control study”. Occupational and Environ Medicine, 57: 258-263.
Vaneeck, J., 1998: “Cellular Mechanisms of Melatonin Action”. Physiol. Rev. 78: 687-721.
Velizarov, S, Raskmark, P, Kwee, S, 1999: The effects of radiofrequency fields on cell proliferation are non-thermal. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 48(1):177-180.
Verschaeve, L., Slaets, D., Van Gorp, U., Maes, A. and Vanderkom, J., 1994: “In vitro and in vivo genetic effects of microwaves from mobile phone frequencies in human and rat peripheral blood lymphocytes”. Proceedings of Cost 244 Meetings on Mobile Communication and Extremely Low Frequency field: Instrumentation and measurements in Bioelectromagnetics Research. Ed. D, Simunic, pp 74-83.
Vijayalaxmi, B.Z., Frei, M.R., Dusch, S.J., Guel, V., Meltz, M.L. and Jauchem, J.R., 1997: “Frequency of micronuclei in the peripheral blood and bone marrow of cancer-prone mice chronically exposed to 2450 MHz radiofrequency radiation”. Radiation Research, 147: 495-500.
Violanti, J.M., 1998: “Cellular phones and fatal traffic collisions”. Accid Anal Prev 30(4): 519-524.
Violanti, J.M. and Marshall, J.R., 1996: “Cellular phones and traffic accidents: an epidemiological approach”. Accid Anal Prev 28(2): 265-270.
Von Klitzing, L, 1995: Low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields influence EG of man. Phys. Medica 11:77-80.
Youbicier-Simo, BJ, Lebecq, JC, Bastide, M, 1998: Mortality of chicken embryos exposed to EMFs from mobile phones. Presented at the Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, St. Pete Beach, FL, June.
Walleczek, J., 1992: “Electromagnetic field effects on cells of the immune system: the role of calcium signaling”. FASEB J., 6: 3176-3185.
Wang, S.G. 1989: “5-HT contents change in peripheral blood of workers exposed to microwave and high frequency radiation”. Chung Hua Yu Fang I Hsueh Tsa Chih 23(4): 207-210.
Wever R. 1974, ELF-effects on Human Circadian Rhythms. In: Persinger MA editor. ELF and VLF Electromagnetic Field Effects. New York, Plenum Press. p 101-144.
Weyandt, T.B., Schrader, S.M., Turner, T.W. and Simon, S.D., 1996: “Semen analysis of military personnel associated with military duty assignments”. Reprod Toxicol 10(6):521-528.
Wilson, B.W., Wright, C.W., Morris, J.E., Buschbom, R.L., Brown, D.P., Miller, D.L., Sommers-Flannigan, R. and Anderson, L.E., 1990: “Evidence of an effect of ELF electromagnetic fields on human pineal gland function”. J Pineal Research 9(4): 259-269.
Wood, A.W., Armstrong, S.M., Sait, M.L., Devine, L. and Martin, M.J., 1998: “Changes in human plasma melatonin profiles in response to 50 Hz magnetic field exposure”. J Pineal Research 25(2): 116-127.
Zaret, M.M., 1977: “Potential hazards of hertzian radiation and tumors. NY State J Med,146-147
Electromagnetic Field “EMF” Articles
Can we make the phone mast-cancer link?
The Effects Of Radiation In The Cause Of Cancer
Health chiefs probe phone-mast cancer link claims
Tetra & telecommunication masts
Germany Cancer Clusters
Clusters in England
The largest cancer cluster in the U.K.
Phone masts on the roof of our local secondary school have resulted in 10
teachers (at least) with cancer
Its alleged that a Southport Children’s Nursery has three children with leukemia
School Study about cancer and phone masts at Gijon
SAFETY FEARS SWITCHED OFF BY TV MAST CLAIMS
Lloyd Morgan of the Brain Tumor Registry
Cancer Cluster in Spain 2000-2005
45 DIED AROUND An ANTENNA OF TELEPHONY
Union wants audit over tumours
Cyprus: “Alarm Bells of Radiation Threat”
Continuation of the medical investigation with Saint-Cyr military school
Is my cancer linked to forest of phone masts?
Leukemia in children will continue growing
EMR Reduces Melatonin in Animals and People
Calcium ion influx and efflux, a true biological effect: EMR should be treated as chemicals
Hypothesis cause of the rise in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity
Disorder ADHD are mobile phones and masts
MOBILES ‘PUT KIDS AT RISK OF AUTISM AND BRAIN TUMOURS’
Increase in Autism incidence, tentative association with other
environmental variables based on demographics
Hazards of RF MW radiation and EMF in populated areas
Dr Carlo’s visit to the UK
HEALTH WARNING CALL FOR MOBILE PHONES
Dr Mike Repacholi: Industry consultant and ex leader for WHO???
WHO: One billion people affected by neurological diseases
Mobile phones boost brain tumor risk by up to 270 percent on side of
brain where phone is held http://omega.twoday.net/stories/3371040/
THE UGLINESS OF THE INSTALLMENTS IS UNACCEPTABLE FOR THE SIGHT AND THE
The End Is Near
More Cell-phone Sickness?
On Second-Hand RF Radiation
EMF frequencies or microwave frequencies are overriding normal control
mechanisms in the body and shutting off energy production
Alzheimers: we can’t afford to wait 5-10 years for “truth”
EMF/EMR causes AGING
Is there a connection between the rise in electrosmog and the
weakening of the immune system?
Variable effects of thyroid disorders
The Emerging Global Pattern of Insect Pollinator Decline
Cell users throw safety measures to the winds
Cables ‘safer’ than mobile masts
New Budapest building shields residents from electrosmog
Campaigners fight plans for 81ft mobile phone mast
Mast planning rules shake-up
Application for phone mast
Surprise over phone mast victory
Worthing fights three mobile masts
Community trust veto on mobile phone masts
School opposes phone mast proposal
Firm challenges decision to reject phone mast bid
Families take on phone mast threat
‘Wi-fi’ fear parents should stop moaning and take kids away
CALL FOR PHONE MASTS REVIEW
Locals in dark on phone mast
Phone company renews bid for controversial Foxford mast
INSPECTOR EXAMINES PHONE MAST APPEAL
Speed cameras could trap drivers on the phone
OMS: 1 milliard de personnes touchÃ©es par des maladies neurologiques
Next-up news n°195
Next-up news n°196
Next-up news n°197
News from Mast Sanity
Omega-News Collection 3. March 2007
Autism Incidence and EMF
The Effect of Cell Phone Radiation on the Red Blood Cell
Childhood leukemia: electric and magnetic fields as possible risk factors
Neurobiological effects of microwave exposure: a review focused on
morphological findings in experimental animals
GSM association: INTERPHONE and other “science milestones”
The radiation from mobile phones and masts cannot cause cancer?
Do You Have Microwave Sickness? (Update)
Professor Anders Ahlbom had been in the Swedish Tobacco Company medical
advising board until 1996
Environmental pollution by microwave radiation: a potential threat to
How shall we cope with the increasing amounts of airborne radiation?
How the Health Council of the Netherlands misleads the public
It seems that the tide has already turned in France
3GSM World Congress Barcelona 2007
Tighter laws on mobile phone antennas
PLANNING APPLICATIONS TURNED DOWN
Mast bid reinstated by Government
Outcry over the city schools cashing in on mobile masts
Phone mast goes up despite protest
Residents say no to phone mast
Approval sends clear message on aerials
Demos planned over mast
PROTESTERS STOP MAST AGAIN
PARENTS’ ANGER AT PHONE MAST PLANS
We don’t want masts near our homes
”˜We’ll fight to the finish’
Radiation fear at schools
“Cheeky” phone company masters council planning laws
Plans for Villiers mast shot down by An Bord Pleanala
”˜Sneaky’ phone firm moves
Families’ phone mast fight
Residents fight new mast plans
Phone giant’s victory for taller mast
BUSINESSMEN TELL OF PHONE MAST CONCERNS
Radar: Father of the Microwave Oven
Mobile Phone Radiation Hazards