Dr. Weeks’ Comment: Here are some excellent articles helping us remind our infectious disease doctors to not forget the vitD3 ! “…. This study demonstrates for the first time a direct antiviral effect of vitamin D…”
THE ROLE OF VITAMIN D3 AND HEPATITIS C
Transpl Int. 2011 Jan;24(1):43-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.2010.01141.x.
Medical Liver Transplantation Unit, Internal Medicine, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.
In immune-competent patients, higher vitamin D levels predicted sustained viral response (SVR) following interferon (INF) and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C. This study aimed to verify the influence of vitamin D serum levels and/or vitamin D supplementation in predicting SVR rates for recurrent hepatitis C (RHC). Forty-two consecutive patients were treated for RHC with combination therapy with INF-α and ribavirin for 48 weeks. Vitamin D serum levels were measured in all patients before antiviral therapy. In 15 patients oral vitamin D3 supplementation was administered to avoid further bone loss. SVR was observed in 13 patients; it was achieved in 1/10 severely vitamin D deficient (≤ 10 ng/ml) patients, in 6/20 deficient (>10 and ≤ 20 ng/ml) and in 6/12 with near normal (> 20 ng/ml) 25-OH vitamin D serum levels (P < 0.05). Cholecalciferol supplementation, in the presence of a normal or near normal baseline vitamin D concentration, (improvement of chi-square P < 0.05, odds ratio 2.22) and possessing a genotype other than 1 (improvement of chi-square P < 0.05, odds ratio 3.383) were the only variables independently associated to SVR. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency predicts an unfavourable response to antiviral treatment of RHC. Vitamin D supplementation improves the probability of achieving a SVR following antiviral treatment.
World J Gastroenterol. 2011 Dec 21;17(47):5184-90.
Liver Unit, Department of Internal Medicine B, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera 38100, Israel. email@example.com
To determine whether adding vitamin D, a potent immunomodulator, improves the hepatitis C virus (HCV) response to antiviral therapy.
Seventy-two consecutive patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 were randomized into two groups: the treatment group (n = 36, 50% male, mean age 47 ± 11 years) received Peg-α-2b interferon (1.5 μg/kg per week) plus ribavirin (1000-1200 mg/d) together with vitamin D3 (2000 IU/d, target serum level > 32 ng/mL), and the control group (n = 36, 60% male, mean age 49 ± 7 years) received identical therapy without vitamin D. HCV-RNA was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (sensitivity, 10 IU/mL). The sustained virologic response (SVR) was defined as undetectable HCV-RNA at 24 wk post-treatment.
Clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. The treatment group had a higher mean body mass index (27 ± 4 kg/m² vs 24 ± 3 kg/m²; P < 0.01), viral load (50% vs 42%, P < 0.01), and fibrosis score (> F2: 42% vs 19%, P < 0.001) than the controls. At week 4, 16 (44%) treated patients and 6 (17%) controls were HCV-RNA negative (P < 0.001). At week 12, 34 (94%) treated patients and 17 (48%) controls were HCV-RNA negative (P < 0.001). At 24 wk post-treatment (SVR), 31 (86%) treated patients and 15 (42%) controls were HCV-RNA negative (P < 0.001). Viral load, advanced fibrosis and vitamin D supplementation were strongly and independently associated with SVR (multivariate analysis). Adverse events were mild and typical of Peg-α-2b/ribavirin.
Adding vitamin D to conventional Peg-α-2b/ribavirin therapy for treatment-naïve patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection significantly improves the viral response.
Dig Liver Dis. 2012 Jan;44(1):67-73. Epub 2011 Sep 17.
Liver Transplant Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy.
Aim of the present study was to investigate whether 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (Vitamin D3) modulates T lymphocyte functions in patients transplanted for hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis.
Vitamin D3 potently reduced T-lymphocyte proliferation in a dose-related fashion. Similarly, FACS analysis and ELISA testing demonstrated that Vitamin D3 significantly decreased the response frequency and the response intensity of IFN-γ and TNF-α production in the whole CD3-positive T lymphocyte population as well as in “naive” CD4+ CD45RA+ and “memory” CD4+ CD45RO+ T lymphocyte subsets. The inhibitory effect of Vitamin D3 on T-cell proliferation and cytokine production was not different between patients and controls. No toxic effects were exerted by Vitamin D3 even at the higher concentration used (10nM). Finally, no statistically significant correlation was found between 25(OH)D serum levels and the proliferative response or cytokine production of T lymphocytes from transplanted patients.
This study demonstrates that in patients transplanted for hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis Vitamin D3 modulates T lymphocyte activation, and provides a rationale for the evaluation of this compound as an immunosuppressive agent in liver-transplanted patients.
Liver Int. 2012 Apr;32(4):635-43. doi: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2011.02674.x. Epub 2011 Dec 8.
Baur K, Mertens JC, Schmitt J, Iwata R, Stieger B, Eloranta JJ, Frei P, Stickel F, Dill MT, Seifert B, Ferrari HA, von Eckardstein A, Bochud PY, Müllhaupt B, Geier A; Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort Study Group.
Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, University Hospital Zurich (USZ), Zurich, Switzerland.
Decreased vitamin D levels have been described in various forms of chronic liver disease and associated with advanced fibrosis. Whether this association is a cause or consequence of advanced fibrosis remains unclear to date.
To analyse combined effects of 25-OH vitamin D plasma levels and vitamin D receptor gene (VDR; NR1I1) polymorphisms on fibrosis progression rate in HCV patients.
The bAt[CCA]-haplotype was significantly associated with fibrosis progression >0.101 U/year (P = 0.007; OR = 2.02) and with cirrhosis (P = 0.022; OR = 1.84). Forty-five percent of bAt[CCA]-haplotype patients were rapid fibrosers, 21.1% were cirrhotic. Likewise, ApaI rs7975232 CC genotype was significantly associated with fibrosis progression and cirrhosis. Lower plasma 25-OH vitamin D levels were significantly associated with fibrosis progression >0.101 U/year in F0-2 patients (P = 0.013). Combined analysis of both variables revealed a highly significant additive effect on fibrosis progression with 45.5% rapid fibrosers for bAt[CCA]-haplotype and 25-OH vitamin D < 20 μg/L compared with only 9.1% for the most favourable combination (P = 0.006). In multivariate analysis, the bAt-haplotype was an independent risk factor for fibrosis progression (P = 0.001; OR = 2.83).
Low 25-OH vitamin D plasma levels and the unfavourable VDR bAt[CCA]-haplotype are associated with rapid fibrosis progression in chronic HCV patients. In combination, both variables exert significant additive effects on fibrosis progression.
Hepatology. 2011 Nov;54(5):1570-9. doi: 10.1002/hep.24575.
Molecular Hepatology Research Laboratory, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
Vitamin D supplementation was reported to improve the probability of achieving a sustained virological response when combined with antiviral treatment against hepatitis C virus (HCV). Our aim was to determine the in vitro potential of vitamin D to inhibit HCV infectious virus production and explore the mechanism(s) of inhibition. Here we show that vitamin D(3) remarkably inhibits HCV production in Huh7.5 hepatoma cells. These cells express CYP27B1, the gene encoding for the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the vitamin D hormonally active metabolite, calcitriol. Treatment with vitamin D(3) resulted in calcitriol production and induction of calcitriol target gene CYP24A1, indicating that these cells contain the full machinery for vitamin D metabolism and activity. Notably, treatment with calcitriol resulted in HCV inhibition. Collectively, these findings suggest that vitamin D(3) has an antiviral activity which is mediated by its active metabolite. This antiviral activity involves the induction of the interferon signaling pathway, resulting in expression of interferon-β and the interferon-stimulated gene, MxA. Intriguingly, HCV infection increased calcitriol production by inhibiting CYP24A1 induction, the enzyme responsible for the first step in calcitriol catabolism. Importantly, the combination of vitamin D(3) or calcitriol and interferon-α synergistically inhibited viral production.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates for the first time a direct antiviral effect of vitamin D in an in vitro infectious virus production system. It proposes an interplay between the hepatic vitamin D endocrine system and HCV, suggesting that vitamin D has a role as a natural antiviral mediator. Importantly, our study implies that vitamin D might have an interferon-sparing effect, thus improving antiviral treatment of HCV-infected patients
J Hepatol. 2011 Oct;55(4):944-5; author reply 945. Epub 2011 Feb 22.
J Hepatol. 2011 Oct;55(4):756-61. Epub 2011 Feb 18.
Department of Internal Medicine, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.
BACKGROUND & AIMS:
Recent findings in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-monoinfected patients have shown a correlation between low serum levels of 25-OH vitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] and severe liver fibrosis and low sustained virologic response to therapy. Data are lacking in HIV-HCV coinfected patients.
Mean serum 25(OH)D3 level was 18.5 ± 9.8 ng/ml, including 162 (85%) patients with level ≤30 ng/ml. Serum 25(OH)D3 levels were significantly correlated with the histological Metavir fibrosis score (r = -0.16; p = 0.027). Patients with severe fibrosis (Metavir F3/F4) had lower serum 25(OH)D3 levels compared to F2 and F1 patients (16.2 ± 10.0 vs. 18.9 ± 8.5 and 20.9 ± 11.1 ng/ml, respectively; p = 0.06). In multivariate analysis, low serum 25(OH)D levels were independently associated with severe liver fibrosis (p = 0.04) and cold season (p = 0.0002). Serum levels of 25(OH)D3 were also significantly correlated with liver fibrosis as assessed by FibroTest® (r = -0.22; p = 0.008) and serum α2-macroglobulin levels (r = -0.23; p = 0.006). In contrast, no correlation was found between 25(OH)D3 levels and HCV sustained virologic response to IFN-based therapy [OR 0.98 (0.95-1.01); p = 0.22]. No association was found between 25(OH)D3 levels and markers of HIV-related immunodeficiency.
In HIV-HCV co-infected patients, low serum 25(OH)D3 levels correlate with severe liver fibrosis. In contrast, serum 25(OH)D3 levels are not linked to HCV virologic response to therapy or severity of immunodeficiency.
J Hepatol. 2011 May;54(5):887-93. Epub 2011 Jan 20.
Klinikum der J.W. Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Medizinische Klinik 1, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
BACKGROUND & AIMS:
Vitamin D is an important immune modulator and preliminary data indicated an association between vitamin D deficiency and sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 patients. We, therefore, performed a comprehensive analysis on the impact of vitamin D serum levels and of genetic polymorphisms with functional relevance within the vitamin D cascade on chronic hepatitis C and its treatment.
Chronic hepatitis C was associated with a high incidence of severe vitamin D deficiency compared to controls (25(OH)D(3)<10 ng/ml in 25% versus 12%, p<0.00001). 25(OH)D(3) deficiency correlated with SVR in HCV genotype 2 and 3 patients (50% and 81% SVR for patients with and without severe vitamin D deficiency, respectively, p<0.0001). In addition, the CYP27B1-1260 promoter polymorphism rs10877012 had substantial impact on 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D serum levels (72, 61, and 60 pmol/ml for rs10877012 AA, AC, and CC, respectively, p=0.04) and on SVR rates in HCV genotype 1, 2, and 3 infected patients (77% and 65% versus 42% for rs10877012 AA, AC, and CC, respectively, p=0.02).
Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is associated with vitamin D deficiency. Reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and CYP27B1-1260 promoter polymorphism leading to reduced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with failure to achieve SVR in HCV genotype 1, 2, and 3 infected patients.