Dr. Weeks’ Comment: Anti-inflammatory seeds like black cumin and black raspberry and chardonnay grape seeds are highly nutritious and therapeutic. Here is a pair of article on the role of these seeds and Partkinson’s disease.
Neuroprotective effect of thymoquinone, the nigella sativa bioactive compound, in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced hemi-parkinsonian rat model.
Parkinson disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder with progressive degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons for which current treatments afford symptomatic relief with no-prevention of disease progression. Due to the neuroprotective property of the Nigella sativa bioactive compound thymoquinone (TQ), this study was undertaken to evaluate whether TQ could improve behavioral and cellular abnormalities and markers of oxidative stress in an experimental model of early PD in rat. Unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats were daily pretreated p.o. with TQ at doses of 5 and/or 10 mg/Kg three times at an interval of 24 h. After 1 week, apomorphine caused contralateral rotations, a reduction in the number of neurons on the left side of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) was observed, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite level in midbrain homogenate increased and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) reduced in the 6-OHDA lesion group. TQ pretreatment significantly improved turning behavior, prevented loss of SNC neurons, and lowered level of MDA. These results suggest that TQ could afford neuroprotection against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity that is partly due to the attenuation of lipid peroxidation and this may provide benefits, along with other therapies, in neurodegenerative disorders including PD.
Nigella sativa was found to possess a therapeutic effect against Parkinson’s did is he is in court from is a new and used and all Parkinson disease model’s. Further studies with different extracts and their fractions are encouraged to identify the chemical constituents responsible for Anti-Parkinson’s activity.
Our results suggest the Anti-Parkinson’s activity of Nigella sativa is doe to its anti-cataleptic and neurochemical response.
and this article talks about a novel anti-inflammatory agent beta hydroxybutyric acid. Your government took its therapeutic twin sister gamma hydroxybutryic acid off the market and replaced it with Xyrem (GHB plus a sodium molecule). Bottom line: take your safe and effective anti-inflammatory agents.
Anti-inflammatory effects of BHBA in both in vivo and in vitro Parkinson¿s disease models are mediated by GPR109A-dependent mechanisms.
Background Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays an important role in the progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Excessively activated microglia produce several pro-inflammatory enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to damage to surrounding neurons and eventually inducing neurodegeneration. Therefore, the inhibition of microglial overactivation may be a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent the further progression of PD. ÃŸ-Hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) has been shown to suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in BV-2 cells and to protect dopaminergic neurons in previous studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, in this study, we further investigated this mechanism in LPS-induced in vivo and in vitro PD models.MethodsFor the in vitro experiments, primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures were pretreated with BHBA and stimulated with LPS. [3H]dopamine (DA) uptake, tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons and morphological analysis were evaluated and analyzed in primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures. In vivo, microglial activation and the injury of dopaminergic neurons were induced by LPS intranigral injection, and the effects of BHBA treatment on microglial activation and the survival ratio and function of dopaminergic neurons were investigated. Four our in vitro mechanistic experiment, primary microglial cells were pretreated with BHBA and stimulated with LPS; the cells were then assessed for the responses of pro-inflammatory enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the NF-¿B signaling pathway was evaluated and analyzed.ResultsWe found that BHBA concentration-dependently attenuated the LPS-induced decrease in [3H]DA uptake and loss of TH-ir neurons in the primary mesencephalic neuron/glia mixed culture. BHBA treatment significantly improved the motor dysfunction of the PD model rats induced by intranigral injection of LPS, and this beneficial effect of BHBA was attributed to the inhibition of microglial overactivation and the protection of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Our in vitro mechanistic study revealed that the inhibitory effect of BHBA on microglia was mediated by G-protein-coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) and involved the NF-KB signaling pathway, causing the inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzyme (iNOS and COX-2) and pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-a, IL-1ÃŸ, and IL-6) production.
Conclusions: In conclusion, the present study supports the effectiveness of BHBA in protecting dopaminergic neurons against inflammatory challenge.