Dr. Weeks’ Comment: Let food be your medicine and, aside from crushed whole organic non-GMO seeds, garlic is your best bet to fight cancer STEM cells – the really lethal cancer cell. Stop taking chemo and radiation which targets cancer TUMOR cells and renders the lethal cell, the cancer STEM cell “more numerous and more virulent.”
Forkhead Box Q1 Is a Novel Target of Breast Cancer Stem Cell Inhibition by Diallyl Trisulfide*
Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a metabolic byproduct of garlic, is known to inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. This study demonstrates that DATS targets breast cancer stem cells (bCSC). Exposure of MCF-7 and SUM159 human breast cancer cells to pharmacological concentrations of DATS (2.5 and 5 μM) resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of bCSC, as evidenced by a mammosphere assay and flow cytometric analysis of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity and the CD44high/CD24low/epithelial specific antigen-positive fraction. DATS-mediated inhibition of bCSC was associated with a decrease in the protein level of FoxQ1. Overexpression of FoxQ1 in MCF-7 and SUM159 cells increased ALDH1 activity and the CD49f+/CD24− fraction. Inhibition of ALDH1 activity and/or mammosphere formation upon DATS treatment was significantly attenuated by overexpression of FoxQ1. In agreement with these results, stable knockdown of FoxQ1 using small hairpin RNA augmented bCSC inhibition by DATS. Expression profiling for cancer stem cell-related genes suggested that FoxQ1 may negatively regulate the expression of Dachshund homolog 1 (DACH1), whose expression is lost in invasive breast cancer. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed recruitment of FoxQ1 at the DACH1promoter. Moreover, inducible expression of DACH1 augmented DATS-mediated inhibition of bCSC. Expression of FoxQ1 protein was significantly higher in triple-negative breast cancer cases compared with normal mammary tissues. Moreover, an inverse association was observed between FoxQ1 and DACH1 gene expression in breast cancer cell lines and tumors. DATS administration inhibited ALDH1 activity in vivo in SUM159 xenografts. These results indicate that FoxQ1 is a novel target of bCSC inhibition by DATS.