Thymoquinone from nutraceutical black cumin oil activates Neu4 sialidase in live macrophage, dendritic, and normal and type I sialidosis human fibroblast cells via GPCR Galphai proteins and matrix metalloproteinase-9.
Anti-inflammatory activities of thymoquinone (TQ) have been demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo studies. However, the precise mechanism(s) of TQ in these anti-inflammatory activities is not well understood. Using a newly developed assay to detect sialidase activity in live macrophage cells (Glycoconj J doi: 10.1007/s10719-009-9239-8 ), here we show that TQ has no inhibitory effect on endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced sialidase activity in live BMC-2 macrophage cells. In contrast, the parent black seed oil (BSO) and another constituent of BSO para-cymene (p-CY) completely block LPS induced sialidase activity. All of these compounds had no effect on cell viability. On the other hand, TQ induces a vigorous sialidase activity in live BMC-2 macrophage cells in a dose dependent manner as well in live DC-2.4 dendritic cells, HEK-TLR4/MD2, HEK293, SP1 mammary adenocarcinoma cells, human WT and 1140F01 and WG0544 type I sialidosis fibroblast cells. Tamiflu (oseltamivir phosphate) inhibits TQ-induced sialidase activity in live BMC-2 cells with an IC(50) of 0.0194 microM compared to an IC(50) of 19.1 microM for neuraminidase inhibitor DANA (2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid). Anti-Neu1, -2 and -3 antibodies have no inhibition of TQ-induced sialidase activity in live BMC-2 and human THP-1 macrophage cells but anti-Neu4 antibodies completely block this activity. There is a vigorous sialidase activity associated with TQ treated live primary bone marrow (BM) macrophage cells derived from WT and hypomorphic cathepsin A mice with a secondary Neu1 deficiency (NeuI KD), but not from Neu4 knockout (Neu4 KO) mice. Pertussis toxin (PTX), a specific inhibitor of Galphai proteins of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) and the broad range inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) galardin and piperazine applied to live BMC-2, THP-1 and primary BM macrophage cells completely block TQ-induced sialidase activity. These same inhibitory effects are not observed with the GM1 ganglioside specific cholera toxin subunit B (CTXB) as well as with CTX, tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a, and the broad range GPCR inhibitor suramin. The specific inhibitor of MMP-9, anti-MMP-9 antibody and anti-Neu4 antibody, but not the specific inhibitor of MMP-3 completely block TQ-induced sialidase activity in live THP-1 cells, which express Neu4 and MMP-9 on the cell surface. Neu4 sialidase activity in cell lysates from TQ-treated live THP-1 cells desialylates natural gangliosides and mucin substrates. RT-PCR and western blot analyses reveal no correlation between mRNA and protein values for Neu3 and Neu4 in human monocytic THP-1 cells, suggesting for the first time a varied post-transcriptional mechanism for these two mammalian sialidases independent of TQ activation. Our findings establish an unprecedented activation of Neu4 sialidase on the cell surface by thymoquinone, which is derived from the nutraceutical black cumin oil. The potentiation of GPCR-signaling by TQ via membrane targeting of Galphai subunit proteins and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation may be involved in the activation process of Neu4 sialidase on the cell surface.