Dr. Weeks’ Comment: In the old days, coffee was in the dog house – it was considered an unhealthy drink. The assumption was that if you drank coffee you probably also smoked cigarettes. But science has weighed in and the verdict is clear: coffee is good for you. How good? In every test of its effect on disease (even longevity) coffee has proven beneficial. Want to reduce all cause mortality? Drink coffee.
Coffee is a health food – a functional drink with hundreds of beneficial chemicals including anti-inflammatory agents and tissue repair mechanisms. Here below is evidence that coffee helps people who have cancer due in part to its anti-inflammatory benefits. Just don’t add cream and sugar! Why do people spoil a great cup of coffee by adding cream and sugar? Well they do it because most coffees are acidic and bitter so adding sweetness and dairy helps. But black coffee is healthiest. So which coffee is best for you? Here is how to shop for coffee:
- Drink only organic, non-GMO coffee. Why? Because coffee is the most toxic pesticided, herbicided food which Americans eat. When you drink non-organic coffee your brew is toxic to plants and animals (i.e. to you and your flora in your gut) because of the herbicides and pesticides.
- Drink coffee from India and Brazil because coffee from those countries is the lest acidic.
- Consume the entire coffee bean in a micronized form in order to benefit from all the nutrients and phytochemical in coffee and don’t settle for the typical cup of coffee which is hot water extraction resulting in throwing away the coffee grinds which are nutrient-dense but thrown away as is the case with all brewed coffee)
- Avoid instant coffee, which typically is pre-brewed and then the brewed coffee is spray dried. It is these spray dried crystals of previously brewed coffee which are often sold as instant coffee. But those crystals of already brewed coffee are relatively tasteless and lacking in the astonishingly evocative aroma of fresh brewed coffee.
Those four criteria above – the Coffee Rules – are deliciously accomplished in FUSED – the world’s healthiest coffee. It the the world’s first organic non-GMO coffee bean which is infused with anti-inflammatory seed oils and reinforced with ganoderma for adrenal and immune support. And you can drink it instantly – even though it is not instant coffee. It is finely ground micronized and how does it taste? Fabulous. The aroma? Coffee indeed!
Watch this lecture on Coffee and Cancer if you feel even the least bit guilty indulging yourself!
Coffee and cancer risk, epidemiological evidence, and molecular mechanisms.
Although early studies suggested that coffee consumption might increase risk of some cancers, more comprehensive epidemiological and experimental data now generally indicate either neutral or beneficial effects. In this review, we summarize the current evidence for associations between breast, prostate, colorectal, and liver cancers and the consumption of coffee, and discuss the experimental evidence for potential chemopreventive mechanisms of coffee and coffee constituents. The epidemiological evidence consistently indicates that coffee protects against liver cancer, and also point toward protective effects for risk of colorectal cancers (with relative risks of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.42-0.59) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75-0.92), respectively, in the most recent meta-analyses). There seems to be no association between the overall risk of breast and prostate cancer and coffee intake. However, for subgroups such as postmenopausal breast cancers, advanced prostate cancers, and breast and prostate cancer survivors, an inverse association with coffee intake is indicated. Potential mechanisms for chemopreventive effects of coffee phytochemicals includes inhibition of oxidative stress and oxidative damage, regulation of DNA repair, phase II enzymatic activity, apoptosis, inflammation, as well as having antiproliferative, antiangiogenetic effects and antimetastatic effects. The experimental evidence for effects of coffee and coffee constituents on each of these processes is discussed.
“… the inverse association of coffee intake with HCC risk was partly accounted for by biomarkers of inflammation and hepatocellular injury…”
The association of coffee intake with liver cancer risk is mediated by biomarkers of inflammation and hepatocellular injury: data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
Higher coffee intake has been purportedly related to a lower risk of liver cancer. However, it remains unclear whether this association may be accounted for by specific biological mechanisms.
We aimed to evaluate the potential mediating roles of inflammatory, metabolic, liver injury, and iron metabolism biomarkers on the association between coffee intake and the primary form of liver cancer-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
We conducted a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition among 125 incident HCC cases matched to 250 controls using an incidence-density sampling procedure. The association of coffee intake with HCC risk was evaluated by using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression that accounted for smoking, alcohol consumption, hepatitis infection, and other established liver cancer risk factors. The mediating effects of 21 biomarkers were evaluated on the basis of percentage changes and associated 95% CIs in the estimated regression coefficients of models with and without adjustment for biomarkers individually and in combination.
The multivariable-adjusted RR of having ≥4 cups (600 mL) coffee/d compared with <2 cups (300 mL)/d was 0.25 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.62; P-trend = 0.006). A statistically significant attenuation of the association between coffee intake and HCC risk and thereby suspected mediation was confirmed for the inflammatory biomarker IL-6 and for the biomarkers of hepatocellular injury glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and total bilirubin, which-in combination-attenuated the regression coefficients by 72% (95% CI: 7%, 239%). Of the investigated biomarkers, IL-6, AST, and GGT produced the highest change in the regression coefficients: 40%, 56%, and 60%, respectively.
These data suggest that the inverse association of coffee intake with HCC risk was partly accounted for by biomarkers of inflammation and hepatocellular injury.
AND SEE THESE ARTICLES ON CANCER AND COFFEE
Sado J, Kitamura T, Kitamura Y, Sobue T, Nishino Y, Tanaka H, Nakayama T, Tsuji I, Ito H, Suzuki T, Katanoda K, Tominaga S; Three-Prefecture Cohort Study Group.
Cancer Sci. 2017 Jul 26. doi: 10.1111/cas.13328. [Epub ahead of print]
Tchernev G, Chokoeva AA. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2017 Jun 11;5(3):352-358. doi: 10.3889/oamjms.2017.068. eCollection 2017 Jun 15.
Gunter MJ, et al Ann Intern Med. 2017 Jul 11. doi: 10.7326/M16-2945. [Epub ahead of print]
Park SY, Freedman ND, Haiman CA, Le Marchand L, Wilkens LR, Setiawan VW.
Ann Intern Med. 2017 Jul 11. doi: 10.7326/M16-2472. [Epub ahead of print]
AND COFFEE REDUCES ALL CAUSE MORTALITY
The relationship of coffee consumption with mortality.
Coffee consumption has been linked to various beneficial and detrimental health effects, but data on its relation with mortality are sparse.
To assess the association between coffee consumption and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and all causes during 18 years of follow-up in men and 24 years of follow-up in women.
Sex-specific Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate the association between coffee consumption and incidence of all-cause and disease-specific mortality in a prospective cohort study.
Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Nurses’ Health Study.
41,736 men and 86,214 women with no history of CVD or cancer at baseline.
Coffee consumption was assessed first in 1986 for men and in 1980 for women and then every 2 to 4 years through 2004. Investigators documented 6888 deaths (2049 due to CVD and 2491 due to cancer) among men and 11,095 deaths (2368 due to CVD and 5011 due to cancer) among women.
After adjustment for age, smoking, and other CVD and cancer risk factors, the relative risks for all-cause mortality in men across categories of coffee consumption (<1 cup per month, 1 cup per month to 4 cups per week, 5 to 7 cups per week, 2 to 3 cups per day, 4 to 5 cups per day, and >or=6 cups per day) were 1.0, 1.07 (95% CI, 0.99 to 1.16), 1.02 (CI, 0.95 to 1.11), 0.97 (CI, 0.89 to 1.05), 0.93 (CI, 0.81 to 1.07), and 0.80 (CI, 0.62 to 1.04), respectively (P for trend = 0.008). For women, the relative risks were 1.0, 0.98 (CI, 0.91 to 1.05), 0.93 (CI, 0.87 to 0.98), 0.82 (CI, 0.77 to 0.87), 0.74 (CI, 0.68 to 0.81), and 0.83 (CI, 0.73 to 0.95), respectively (P for trend < 0.001). This inverse association was mainly due to a moderately reduced risk for CVD mortality and was independent of caffeine intake. By contrast, coffee consumption was not statistically significantly associated with risk for cancer death after adjustment for potential confounders. Decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated with a small reduction in all-cause and CVD mortality.
Coffee consumption was estimated from self-report; thus, some measurement error is inevitable.
Regular coffee consumption was not associated with an increased mortality rate in either men or women. The possibility of a modest benefit of coffee consumption on all-cause and CVD mortality needs to be further investigated.