Dr. Weeks’ Comment: Caffeine is thought to be bad for the heart – stress and all. But the science suggests that coffee is not bad of you. As one deft study declares: “Most of the effects attributed to the chronic use of coffee on the HRV indexes is related to the higher prevalence of unhealthy habits in coffee users, such as smoking and alcohol use.”
FUSED – is the world’s healthiest coffee. It the the world’s first organic non-GMO coffee bean which is infused with anti-inflammatory seed oils and reinforced with ganoderma for adrenal and immune support. And you can drink it instantly – even though it is not instant coffee. It is finely ground micronized and how does it taste? Fabulous. The aroma? Coffee indeed!
Watch this lecture on Coffee and Cancer if you feel even the least bit guilty indulging yourself!
Coffee Consumption and Heart Rate Variability: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Cohort Study.
Studies have shown that acute coffee ingestion can affect cardiovascular autonomic activity, although the chronic effects on heart rate variability (HRV) remain controversial.
A cross-sectional study with baseline data (2008-2010) from ELSA-Brasil cohort of 15,105 (aged 35-74), based in six Brazilian states. Coffee consumption in the previous 12 months was measured using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and HRV was obtained through electrocardiographic tracings during 10 min at rest. Independent association between the frequency of coffeeconsumption “never or almost never”, “≤1 cup/day”, “2-3 cups/day”, “≥3 cups/day”, and HRV was estimated using generalized linear regression, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behavior, markers of abnormal metabolism, and the presence of coronary artery disease. Further, we applied Bonferroni correction in the full models.
The mean age was 52 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.1), and 52% was female; 9.5% never/almost never consumed coffee. In univariate analysis, coffee consumers had reduced values of HRV indexes, but after full adjustments and correction for multiple comparisons, these associations disappeared. A trend of reduction in HRV vagal indexes was observed in those that consumed ≥3 cups of coffee/day.
Most of the effects attributed to the chronic use of coffee on the HRV indexes is related to the higher prevalence of unhealthy habits in coffee users, such as smoking and alcohol use. Adjustment for confounding factors weaken this association, making it non-significant. The effect of higher daily doses of coffee on the autonomic system should be evaluated in further studies.
Coffee consumption and calcified atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries: The NHLBI Family Heart Study.
BACKGROUND & AIMS:
While a recent meta-analysis of prospective studies reported that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality, limited and inconsistent data are available on the relation of coffee intake with subclinical disease. Thus, the aim of the present study was to see the association of coffee consumption with the prevalence of atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries in NHLBI Family Heart Study.
In a cross-sectional design, we studied 1929 participants of the NHLBI Family Heart Study without known coronary heartdisease. Coffee consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and coronary-artery calcium (CAC) was measured by cardiac computed tomography. We defined prevalent CAC as an Agatston score of ≥100 and used generalized estimating equations to calculate prevalence ratios of CAC as well as a sensitivity analysis at a range of cutpoints for CAC.
Mean age was 56.7 years and 59% of the study subjects were female. In adjusted analysis for age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, field center, and energy intake, prevalence ratio (95% CI) for CAC was 1.0 (reference), 0.92 (0.57-1.49), 1.34 (0.86-2.08), 1.30 (0.84-2.02), and 0.99 (0.60-1.64) for coffee consumption of almost never, <1/day, 1/day, 2-3/day, and ≥4 cups/day, respectively. In a sensitivity analysis, there was no evidence of association between coffee consumption and prevalent CAC when CAC cut points of 0, 50, 150, 200, and 300 were used.
These data do not provide evidence for an association between coffee consumption and prevalent CAC in adult men and women.
Coffee consumption and mortality in women with cardiovascular disease.
Coffee is commonly consumed among populations of all ages and conditions. The few studies that have examined the association between coffee consumption and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have obtained conflicting results.
The objective was to assess the association between filtered caffeinated coffee consumption and all-cause and CVD mortality during up to 24 y of follow-up in women with CVD from the Nurses’ Health Study.
The Nurses’ Health Study included 11,697 women. Coffee consumption was first assessed in 1980 with a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and then repeatedly every 2-4 y. Cumulative consumption was calculated with all available FFQs from the diagnosis of CVD to the end of the follow-up in 2004 to assess long-term effects. In addition, the most recent coffee measurement was related to mortality in the subsequent 2 y to assess shorter-term effects. Analyses were performed by using Cox regression models.
We documented 1159 deaths, of which 579 were due to CVD. The relative risks [RRs (95% CI)] of all-cause mortality across categories of cumulative coffee consumption [<1 cup (240 mL or 8 oz)/mo, 1 cup/mo to 4 cups/wk, 5-7 cups/wk, 2-3 cups/d, and ≥4 cups/d] were 1, 1.04 (0.86, 1.27), 1.13 (0.95, 1.36), 1.01 (0.86, 1.18), and 1.18 (0.89, 1.56), respectively (P for trend = 0.91). The RRs of CVD mortality across the same categories of coffee intake were 1, 0.99 (0.75, 1.31), 1.03 (0.80, 1.35), 0.97 (0.78, 1.21), and 1.25 (0.85, 1.84), respectively (P for trend = 0.76). Similarly, caffeine intake was not associated with total or CVD mortality. Finally, we observed no association of the most recent coffee and caffeine intakes with total and CVD mortality in the subsequent 2 y.
Consumption of filtered caffeinated coffee was not associated with CVD or all-cause mortality in women with CVD.