Dr. Weeks’ Comment: This is why EVERYONE should have their urine tested for the cancer causing, leaky gut creating neurotoxin glyphosate (Roundup™). Best old fashioned remedy for detoxing? 1 tablespoon of organic apple cider vinegar in 8 oz hot or cold water – drink twice a day before meals.
Exposure to Glyphosate-Based Herbicides and Risk for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Meta-Analysis and Supporting Evidence
Glyphosate is the most widely used broad-spectrum systemic herbicide in the world. Recent evaluations of the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) by various regional, national, and international agencies have engendered controversy. We investigated whether there was an association between high cumulative exposures to GBHs and increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in humans. We conducted a new meta-analysis that included the most recent update of the Agricultural Health Study(AHS) cohort published in 2018 along with five case-control studies. Using the highest exposure groups when available in each study, we report the overall meta-relative risk (meta-RR) of NHL in GBH-exposed individuals was increased by 41% (meta-RR = 1.41, 95% CI, confidence interval: 1.13–1.75). For comparison, we also performed a secondary meta-analysis using high-exposure groups with the earlier AHS (2005), and we determined a meta-RR for NHL of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.11–1.91), which was higher than the meta-RRs reported previously. Multiple sensitivity tests conducted to assess the validity of our findings did not reveal meaningful differences from our primary estimated meta-RR. To contextualize our findings of an increased NHL risk in individuals with high GBH exposure, we reviewed available animal and mechanistic studies, which provided supporting evidence for the carcinogenic potential of GBH. We documented further support from studies of malignant lymphoma incidence in mice treated with pure glyphosate, as well as potential links between GBH exposure and immunosuppression, endocrine disruption, and genetic alterations that are commonly associated with NHL. Overall, in accordance with evidence from experimental animal and mechanistic studies, our current meta-analysis of human epidemiological studies suggests a compelling link between exposures to GBHs and increased risk for NHL.
9. Conclusions and Future Directions
The rise of glyphosate as the most widely used herbicide raises serious health concerns, given its potential links with NHL. Using our high-exposure a priorihypothesis and including the recently updated AHS cohort in a meta-analysis for the first time, we report that GBH exposure is associated with increased risk of NHL in humans. Our findings are consistent with results reported from prior meta-analyses but show higher risk for NHL because of our focus on the highest exposure groups. However, given the heterogeneity between the studies included, the numerical risk estimates should be interpreted with caution. Additionally, as noted above and depicted in Fig. 3, the available studies do not capture the possible effects of increased population exposures due to secular increases in use where “green burn-down” practices introduced in the mid-2000s may be a particularly important source of population exposures. The totality of the evidence from six studies of glyphosate-exposed mice support this association in humans. Although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown, mechanistic studies of glyphosate-induced immunosuppression/inflammation, endocrine disruption, genetic alterations, and oxidative stress suggest plausible links between GBH exposure and NHL development. The overall evidence from human, animal, and mechanistic studies presented here supports a compelling link between exposures to GBHs and increased risk for NHL.