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Abram Hoffer’s CV and writings.

Dr Weeks’ Comment:    A great man and a dear friend has passed, yet the wake of this great scientist and physician continues to shake the medical and psychiatric community almost a year after his death..



Abram Hoffer M.D., Ph.D

Abram Hoffer M.D., Ph.DPre University
I was born on a farm in Southern Saskatchewan in 1917 in our first wooden house. My three older siblings were born in a sod shack. Public and high school education was completed in single room schools.

University
I combined my new interest in biochemistry with my original interest in agriculture by taking a Masters degree in agricultural chemistry in 1940 at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon. On a graduate scholarship I studied for the following year at the St. Paul campus of the University of Minnesota, and then worked at a flour laboratory in Winnipeg developing chemical assay methods for niacin in flour and other wheat products, and running the control analysis to ensure that the correct quantity of vitamins was added to the flour. I did my research toward my Ph.D. in this laboratory and received my degree in 1944.

By then I had become interested in human nutrition and enrolled in medicine at the University of Saskatchewan in 1945. For a few days before I finally registered I was shaken by an offer by Dr. T. Thorvaldson, Head Department of Chemistry, to accept a job as Professor of Agricultural Chemistry at a salary of $2700 per year. The salary was acceptable, but as my plans had already been made I maintained my resolution to take medicine.

I married Rose Miller in 1942. Bill was born in 1944. While I was interning in 1950 I was offered the position of Professor of Biochemistry at the same University. After two preclinical years at this university, and two clinical years at University of Toronto, I earned my M.D. in 1949. John was born in 1947 and Miriam in 1949.

Entering Psychiatric Research
I interned for one year at City Hospital in Saskatoon, planning on going into general practice, but hoping that I could eventually enter research. While interning I became interested in psychiatry, especially psychosomatic medicine. Toward the end of the year I applied for a position with Psychiatric Services Branch, Department of Public Health at Regina, Sask. I had discussed with the chief, Dr. D. G. McKerracher, my interest in combining my interests in medicine, chemistry and psychiatry in a research position. I joined him in July 1, 1951.

I was given three missions: (1) to master psychiatry in preparation for qualifying for the specialty; I was fully qualified in 1954, and a few years later became a Fellow in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons (Canada). (2) To be consultant in biochemistry to the general hospital at Regina and, (3) to initiate a program of research into psychiatry.

January and February 1951, my wife and I toured the few research centers in psychiatry in Canada and the United States for six weeks. This proved very valuable when later we decided which research program we would start. The three most memorial visits were with Dr. Nolan D. C. Lewis, at the Psychiatric Institute in New York, Dr. H. Kluver, Culver Hall, University of Chicago, and Dr. Franz Alexander, at a psychoanalytic institute which he directed.

Lewis and Kluver introduced me to the fascinating possibilities of the hallucinogens, especially mescaline, and from Dr. Alexander’s luncheon clinic I learned that psychosomatic medicine had no basis in fact.

Dr. H. Osmond joined us in Saskatchewan in the fall of 1952. We soon were good friends and close colleagues. We organized and directed the research program until he left in 1960, and I went into private practice in 1967.

We decided to tackle the most important single problem, schizophrenia. Half of our mental hospital beds were occupied by these patients, and one quarter of all hospital beds in Canada were these patients. But there were very few tangible leads. Psychoanalysis was sweeping into North American psychiatry, and the biological psychiatrists were facing imminent defeat in their views about the nature of this disease.

Dr. Osmond and Dr. J. Smythies had discovered that the mescaline experience resembled the schizophrenic experience, and he and Smythies postulated that there might be a substance in the body with the properties of mescaline and related to adrenalin. Dr. Osmond and I developed this idea, which became known as the adrenochrome hypothesis of schizophrenia.

In 1954 we received a very large grant from the Rockefeller Foundation to continue this investigation. Before I could get the grant I was to travel to Europe and visit the research centers there. By the time I left research we had a very large well established research group, a truly cross-fertilized group in which psychologists, psychiatrists, nurses, and social workers all worked together.

Arising from this research are the following discoveries: (1) That adrenochrome is an hallucinogen, (2) that it could be made in the body. It is now known to be present and easily measured. (3) That megadoses of vitamin b-3 and ascorbic acid were therapeutic for schizophrenia. This was one of the roots of orthomolecular psychiatry and medicine as it is known today. (4) That niacin lowers cholesterol levels. This vitamin is now one of the world’s standard materials for doing so. It also extends life and does not increase deaths from violent acts as some of the other compounds which lower cholesterol do. (5) The HOD and EWI test for assisting in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. This is an excellent test, hardly known to the profession.

In pursuing this research we were the first physicians in America to conduct double blind controlled tests, and we were later the first to recognize and to publish its many defects and flaws.

Our discovery that niacin lowers cholesterol, published in 1955, is credited with the initiation of the new paradigm in nutritional medicine, i.e. the use of vitamins for treatment and not just for prevention of deficiency disease.

Private Practice, from 1967
I gave up my two positions, Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Director of Psychiatric Research, because my freedom to publish and discuss our therapeutic trials using vitamins was being severely restricted by my two main employers, the University of Saskatchewan and the Department of Public Health. The psychiatric establishment was violently opposed to our work, which did not have the support of the drug companies who were promoting their own products, the tranquilizers. Not a single attempt was made to repeat our double blind controlled studies (five), nor to examine our claims clinically. I decided I could be more effective free of any of these adverse influences.

Since then I have been happily working with thousands of patients, applying what we had discovered in those early years in Saskatchewan. I have published many hundreds of reports in the medical and psychiatric literature, but after our views became widely known the establishment literature would no longer accept any and our reports went to the alternative literature instead. I have authored many books.

I have been active in the Canadian Schizophrenia Foundation which will celebrate its 25th anniversary next May in Vancouver with a two and one-half day meeting. I was one of the organizers of the Huxley Institute of Biosocial Research, which has unfortunately not been able to survive. I am editor of the Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, which was the first medical journal to bring attention to many important new treatments in medicine such as the yeast syndrome, the toxicity of mercury from amalgams, the orthomolecular treatment of the schizophrenias and many other conditions.

My main interest since 1967 in Saskatoon, and in Victoria, B.C., after 1976, has been to promote the principles of orthomolecular medicine and psychiatry. In medicine the move into nutrition or orthomolecular medicine is well underway, and will sweep into most of the medical schools within the next five years. The move into psychiatry has been dismally slow. Psychiatrists can not untrack themselves from the influence of the tranquilizers, which are helpful, but when used alone hardly ever restore a schizophrenic patient to normal. My definition of a normal person is one who is free of signs and symptoms, gets on well with family, gets on well with the community, and pays income tax. Up to 90% of early patients, not yet badly damaged by the illness and the way it was treated, will achieve this. With chronic patients most will achieve this after 6 or 7 years of treatment. The treatment has been described many times. Literature is available from the Canadian Schizophrenia Foundation, 16 Florence Avenue, Toronto, Canada M2N 1E9, telephone number, fax number.

I am pleased with my medical colleagues who are quickly moving into this modern paradigm, and am very frustrated by the massive inertia of my psychiatric colleagues who are still waiting for the Holy Grail, that new tranquilizer which appears every year, which will do for schizophrenia what insulin does for diabetes. The number of homeless chronic schizophrenics in the streets of all large American and Canadian cities is evidence of their inability to do more them than we could do in 1950 before we had any tranquilizers. But at least then we had hospitals which provided shelter and food and some care. Today the downtown slums have become the surrogate mental hospital beds for the chronic patients whose treatment has been wholly tranquilizers.

About thirty years ago I predicted that it would take at least forty years before megavitamin treatment would be accepted. After all, Moses walked his Israelite followers in circles in the desert for 40 years before initiating the invasion of the Holy Land. He realized that two generations of people born and raised in slavery would have to die before he could depend upon them to have enough fighting spirit and spunk to attempt the invasion. Do we have to wait for more than two generations of psychiatrists bred in the analytic and tranquilizer era to die before their offspring can begin to think about orthomolecular treatment of schizophrenic patients? Our first megavitamin treatment paper was published in 1957.

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Here is a lot of what Dr. Hoffer has written gathered by Andrew Saul  www.doctoryourself.com

http//doctoryourself.com/biblio_hoffer.html


Dr. Hoffer’s 50 years of practicing nutritional medicine is available for you to read at

http//www.doctoryourself.com/news/v1n22.txt

Would you like to know a bit more about Dr. Hoffer’s life story, in his

own words? http//www.doctoryourself.com/life_hoffer.html

List of books published:

  1. Hoffer A & Osmond H. The Chemical Basis of Clinical Psychiatry. CC Thomas, Springfield, IL, 1960.
  2. Hoffer A. Niacin Therapy in Psychiatry. CC Thomas, Springfield, IL, 1962.
  3. Hoffer A & Osmond H. How To Live With Schizophrenia. University Books, New York, NY, 1966. Also published by Johnson, London, 1966. Written by Fannie Kahan. New and Revised Ed. Citadel Press, New York, NY, 1992. Revised Ed. Quarry Press, Kingston, ON 1999 (Review)
  4. Hoffer A & Osmond H. New Hope For Alcoholics. University Books, New York, 1966. Written by Fannie Kahan. (No known electronic link) Excerpt
  5. Kelm H, Hoffer A & Osmond H. Hoffer-Osmond Diagnostic Manual. Saskatoon, SK, 1967.
  6. Hoffer A. The Hallucinogens. Academic Press (June, 1967)
  7. Hoffer A, Kelm H & Osmond H. The Hoffer-Osmond Diagnostic Test. RE Krieger Pub. Co., Huntington, NY, 1975.
  8. Hoffer A. Megavitamin therapy: In reply to the American Psychiatric Association Task Force report on megavitamins and orthomolecular psychiatry. Canadian Schizophrenia Foundation (1976)
  9. Hoffer A & Walker M: Orthomolecular Nutrition. Keats Pub., New Canaan, CT, 1978.
  10. Hoffer A. Dr Abram Hoffer’s Guide to the Identification and Treatment of Schizophrenia. Keats Pub (June 1, 1980)
  11. Hoffer A & Walker M: Nutrients to Age Without Senility. Keats Pub Inc, New Canaan, CT, 1980.
  12. Hoffer A. Vitamin B3 (Niacin). McFarland & Company (August 1, 1982)
  13. Hoffer A. Common questions on schizophrenia and their answers. Keats Pub (1987)
  14. Hoffer A. Nutrition for the General Practitioner. Keats Pub (November, 1988)
  15. Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Medicine for Physicians. Keats Pub., New Canaan, CT, 1989.
  16. Hoffer A. Vitamin B3: Niacin : Update. Keats Pub; Revised edition (April 1, 1990)
  17. Hoffer A & Walker M: Smart Nutrients – A Guide to Nutrients That Can Prevent and Reverse Senility. Avery Publishing Group, Garden City Park, NY, 1994. Updated Version: Smart Nutrients: Prevent and Treat Alzheimer’s, Enhance Brain Function
  18. Hoffer A. Hoffer’s Law of Natural Nutrition. Quarry Press, Kingston, ON, 1996.
  19. Hoffer A. Hoffer’s Laws of Natural Nutrition: A Guide to Eating Well for Pure Health. Quarry Press (September 1, 1996)
  20. Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3 and Schizophrenia. Discovery, Recovery, Controversy. Quarry Press, Kingston, ON 1999. (Review) (Review)
  21. Hoffer A. Common Questions on Schizophrenia and Their Answers. Keats Pub, New Canaan, CT, 1988. Reprinted Quarry Press, Kingston, ON 1999
  22. Hoffer A & Walker M: Putting It All Together: The New Orthomolecular Nutrition. Keats Publishing Inc. New Canaan, Conn, 1996.
  23. Hoffer A, Walker, M: Putting It All Together: The New Orthomolecular Nutrition. McGraw-Hill; 1 edition (October 11, 1998)
  24. Hoffer A. Hoffer’s A.B.C. of Natural Nutrition for Children. Quarry Press. Kingston, ON 1999 (Review)
  25. Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Treatment For Schizophrenia Keats, 4255 West Touhy Avenue, Lincolnwood, Ill 60646-1975 1999 (Review)
  26. Hoffer A. Vitamin C and Cancer: Discovery, Recovery, Controversy. Quarry Press, Kingston, ON 2000 (Review)
  27. Hoffer A. Smart Nutrients (Dr. Morton Walker Health Book). Avery (May 1, 2000)
  28. Hoffer A. Masks of Madness: Orthomolecular Treatment of Mental Illness. Quarry Press (Unpublished)
  29. Hoffer A, Walker, M: Smart Nutrients: Prevent and Treat Alzheimer’s, Enhance Brain Function. Vital Health Publishing; 2nd Rev edition (April 19, 2002)
  30. Hoffer A. Beautiful Minds: Living With Schizophrenia. Quarry Press (Unpublished)
  31. Hoffer A. Get Well, Stay Well. Quarry Press (Unpublished)
  32. Hoffer A. Healing Schizophrenia. Complementary Vitamin & Drug Treatments. CCNM Press (July 1, 2004)
  33. Hoffer A. Healing Children’s Attention & Behavior Disorders: Complementary Nutritional & Psychological Treatments. CCNM Press (July 1, 2004)
  34. Hoffer A. Pauling Dr. Linus: Healing Cancer: Complementary Vitamin & Drug Treatments. CCNM Press (July 1, 2004)
  35. Hoffer A, Challem J: User’s Guide to Natural therapies for Cancer Prevention & Control: Learn How Diet and Supplements Can Help Prevent and Treat Cancer. Basic Health Publications (October, 2004)
  36. Hoffer A. Adventures in Psychiatry: The Scientific Memoirs of Dr. Abram Hoffer. Caledon, Ontario: KOS Publishing, 2005.

Papers and Articles Published:

Hoffer A & Osmond H. Paper to Dementia Praecox Committee, Scottish Rites Masons, New York. Given at the Canada Room, The Waldorf Astoria, New York, 1952. (This was our first report on the adrenochrome hypothesis.) (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A, Osmond H & Smythies J: Schizophrenia: a new approach. II. Results of a year’s research. J Ment Science 100:29-45, 1954. (No known electronic link)

Clancy J, Hoffer A, Lucy J, Osmond H, Smythies J & Stefaniak B: Design and planning in psychiatric research as illustrated by the Weyburn Chronic Nucleotide Project. Bull Men Clinic, 18:147-153, 1954. (No known electronic link)

Altschul R, Hoffer A & Stephen JD: Influence of nicotinic acid on serum cholesterol in man. Arch Biochem Biophys 54:558-559, 1955. (No known electronic link)

Szatmari A, Hoffer A & Schneider R: The effect of adrenochrome and niacin on the electroencephalogram of epileptics. Am J Psychiat 3:603-616, 1955. (No known electronic link)

Agnew N & Hoffer A. Nicotinic acid modified lysergic acid diethylamide psychosis. J Ment Science 101:12-27, 1955. (Abstract available Here)

Hoffer A. Effect of niacin and nicotinamide on leukocytes and some urinary constituents. Can Med Assoc J 74:448-451, 1955. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A, Osmond H, Callbeck MJ & Kahan I: Treatment of schizophrenia with nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. J Clin Exper Psychopathol 18:131-158, 1957. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Callbeck MJ: The hypocholesterolemic effect of nicotinic acid and its relationship to the autonomic nervous system. J Ment Science 103:810-820, 1957. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. The relationship of nicotinic acid to thyroid function. Can Med Assoc J 77:965 only, 1957. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Adrenochrome and adrenolutin and their relationship to mental disease. Psychotropic Drugs. Eds. Garattini S & Ghetti V. Elsevier Press, London, 10-20, 1957. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Adrenochrome and blood plasma. Amer J Psychiatry 114:752-753, 1958. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Relation of epinephrine metabolites to schizophrenia. In: Chemical Concepts of Psychiatry. Eds: Rinkel M & Denber HGB. McDowell-Obolensky Inc., New York, 1958. (No known electronic link)

Altschul R & Hoffer A. Effects of salts of nicotinic acid on serum cholesterol. Brit Med J 2:713-714, 1958. (No known electronic link)

Altschul R & Hoffer A. The effect of nicotinic acid upon serum cholesterol and upon basal metabolic rate of young normal adults. Arch Biochem Biophysics 73:420- 424, 1958. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Osmond H. The adrenochrome model and schizophrenia. J Nerv Mental Dis 128:18-35, 1959. (No known electronic link)

Osmond H & Hoffer A. Schizophrenia: A new approach III. J Ment Science 105:653-673, 1959. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Callbeck MJ: Effect of nicotinic acid on liver function and leukocytes. Can Med Assoc J 80:736-737, 1959. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A, O’Reilly PO & Callbeck MJ: Specificity of the hypocholesterolemic activity of nicotinic acid. Dis Nerv Syst 20:286-288, 1959. (No known electronic link)

Osmond H & Hoffer A. On critics and research. Psychosomatic Med 21:311-320, 1959. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Treatment of arthritis by nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Can Med Assoc J 81:235-238, 1959. (No known electronic link)

O’Reilly PO, Callbeck MJ & Hoffer A. Sustained-release nicotinic acid (Nicospan). Effect on (1) cholesterol levels and (2) leukocytes. Can Med Assoc J 80:359-362, 1959. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Osmond H. The Chemical Basis of Clinical Psychiatry. C. C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, 1960. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Osmond H. Alcoholism and the researcher. AA Grapevine 1960. (No known electronic link)

Altschul R & Hoffer A. Letter to Editor Re: Nicotinic acid on hypercholesterolemia. Can Med Assoc J 83:36-37, 1960. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Osmond H. Concerning an etiological factor in alcoholism. The possible role of adrenochrome metabolism. Quart J Stud Alcohol 20:750-756, 1959. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. The adrenochrome hypothesis of schizophrenia. Paper read to Proc Sixth Ann Psychiatric Institute, Princeton, September 1958. Pub in Proceedings, 36-53. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Adrenaline metabolites and schizophrenia. Dis Nerv Syst 21, Monograph Supp, 79-86, 1960. (No known electronic link)

Altschul R & Hoffer A. The effect of nicotinic acid on hypercholesterolemia. Can Med Assoc J 82:783-785, 1960. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. The relationship of nicotinic acid to cholesterol metabolism. J Clin Exper Psychopath 22: 165-179, 1961. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Osmond H. The biochemistry of mental disease. Can Med Assoc J 85:1309-1311, 1961. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Osmond H. Double blind clinical trials. J Neuropath 2:221-227, 1961. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Ascorbic acid and schizophrenia. B.M.J. 1:1342 only, 1962. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. The effect of adrenochrome and adrenolutin on the behavior of animals and the psychology of man. Int Rev Neurobiology 4:307-371, 1962. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Niacin Therapy in Psychiatry. C. C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, 1962. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Osmond H. A card sorting test helpful in establishing prognosis. Am J Psychiatry 118:840-841,1962(No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Osmond H. Some schizophrenic recoveries. Dis Nerv Syst 23:204-210, 1962 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Osmond H. Letter to Editor Re: Double blind clinical trials. J Neuropsychiatry 2:262-263, 1962. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Osmond H. Letter to Editor: Adrenaline and schizophrenia. Lancet 1:643-644, 1962. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Letter to Editor Re: Malnutrition and mental disease. Brit Med Assoc J 1:1342 only, 1962. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Osmond H. Scurvy and schizophrenia. Dis Nerv Syst 24:273-285, 1963. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Osmond H. A comprehensive theory of schizophrenia. Mind 1:119-121, 1963. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. What’s new in psychiatric research. Introduction. Mind. Psychiatry in General Practice, 1:28 only, 1963. (No known electronic link)

Osmond H & Hoffer A. Massive niacin treatment in schizophrenia. Review of a nine-year study. Lancet 1:316-320, 1963. (No known electronic link)

Smith CM, Hoffer A, Dantow MD & McIntyre S: Nicotinic acid in old age. The placebo effect and other factors in the collection of valid data. J Amer Geriat Soc 11:580-585, 1963. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Nicotinic acid: an adjunct in the treatment of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiat 120:171-173, 1963. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. The adrenochrome theory of schizophrenia. a review. Dis Nerv Syst 25:173-178, 1964. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Single case design and double blind comparison studies for drug evaluation. Mind. Psychiatry in General Practice, 2:119-120, 1964. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Osmond H. Treatment of schizophrenia with nicotinic Acid – a ten year follow-up. Acta Psychiat Scand 40:171-189, 1964. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Treatment of organic psychosis with nicotinic acid (a single case). Dis Nerv Syst 26: 358-360, 1965. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Alcoholism Treatment and Research Center. The Can Forester, LXXXV, August 1965. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Malvaria, schizophrenia and the HOD test. Int J Neuropsychiatry 2:175-177, 1965. (No known electronic link)

Osmond H & Hoffer A. A comprehensive theory of schizophrenia. Int J Neuropsychiatry 2:302-309, 1965. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. The effect of nicotinic acid on the frequency and duration of re-hospitalization of schizophrenic patients; A controlled comparison study. Int J Neuropsychiatry 2:234-240, 1966. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Osmond H. How To Live With Schizophrenia. University Books, New York, NY, 1966. Also published by Johnson, London, 1966. Written by Fannie Kahan. New and Revised Ed. Citadel Press, New York, N.Y. 1992 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Use of nicotinic acid and/or nicotinamide in high doses to treat schizophrenia. Can J Psychiatric Nursing 76:5-6, 1966. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Enzymology of Hallucinogens. In, Enzymes in Mental Health, J.B. Lippincott, 43-55, 1966. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Osmond H. New Hope For Alcoholics, University Books, New York, 1966. Written by Fannie Kahan. (No known electronic link) Excerpt

Hoffer A. Biochemistry of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Psychosomatics 8:95-100, 1967. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Osmond H. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. J Psychopharm 1:79-95, 1967. (No known electronic link) (No known electronic link)

Kelm H, Hoffer A & Hall RW: Reliability of the Hoffer-Osmond Diagnostic test. J Clin Psychology 23:380-382, 1967. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. A theoretical examination of double-blind design. Can Med Assoc J 97:123-127, 1967. (No known electronic link)

Kelm H, Hoffer A & Osmond H. Hoffer-Osmond Diagnostic Manual. Saskatoon, 1967. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Treatment of schizophrenia with a therapeutic program based upon nicotinic acid as the main variable. Molecular Basis of Some Aspects of Mental Activity, Vol II. Ed. O Walaas, Academic Press, New York, 1967. (No known electronic link)

Kelm H, Callbeck MJ & Hoffer A. A short form of the Hoffer-Osmond Diagnostic test. Int J Neuropsychiatry 3:489-490, 1967. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in the treatment of chronic schizophrenic patients. British J Psychiatry 114:915-917, 1968. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & MacLean JR: A brief history of the American Schizophrenia Foundation. Schizophrenia 1:10-12, 1969. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Comparison of xanthine nicotinate and nicotinic acid as treatment for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia 1:24- 37, 1969. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Safety, side effects and relative lack of toxicity of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Schizophrenia 1:78-87, 1969. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Adverse effects of niacin in emergent psychosis. J Am Med Ass 207:1355 only, 1969. (Available here)

Hoffer A. Introduction to Mental Health Through Nutrition, by Judge Tom R. Blaine, The Citadel Press, New York, 1969. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Pellagra and schizophrenia. Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine, Buenos Aires, Jan. 12-18, 1970. Psychosomatic II, 522-525, 1970. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Living with schizophrenia: An Unusual Case of Schizophrenia in a Man of 56. Schizophrenia 2:80-86, 1970.

Hoffer A. Childhood schizophrenia. a case treated with nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Schizophrenia 2:43-53,1970.

Hoffer A & Osmond H. Vitamin B-3 and Krebiozen – a polemic. Schizophrenia 2:161-165, 1970.

Hoffer A. Symposium on statistical aspects of protocol design. Discussion. Cancer Clinical Investigation Review Committee, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 224-229, Dec. 9-10, 1970. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. A vitamin B-3 dependent family. Schizophrenia 3:41-46, 1971.

Hoffer A. Megavitamins Can Psychiatric Ass J. 19:124-5, 1971 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Letter to Editor. Ascorbic acid and schizophrenia. C.M.C. News 2, May 1971. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Letter to Editor. (Rebuttal of attack on Linus Pauling) Nutrition Today 6:34-35, 1971. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3 dependent child. Schizophrenia 3:107-113, 1971.

Hoffer A. Ascorbic acid and toxicity. New England J of Med 285:635-636, 1971. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Vitamin C and the common cold. Can Med Assoc J 105:901-902, 1971. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Megavitamin B-3 therapy for schizophrenia. Can Psychiatric Ass J 16:499-504, 1971. (No known electronic link)

Masters AB, Hoffer A, Nair NPV, Messer CJ, Zarzadias R & Moraes C: Care of chronic psychotics. Brit Med Ass J 4:489 only, 1971. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Foreword to, Body Mind and the B Vitamins by R Adams & F Murray. Larchmont Books, New York, 1972. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. LSD-induced psychosis and vitamin B-3. Amer J Psychiatry 128:145 only, 1972(No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular treatment of schizophrenia. Orthomolecular Psychiatry 1:46-55, 1972.

Hoffer A. Treatment of hyperkinetic children with nicotinamide and pyridoxine. Can Med Assoc J 107:111-112, 1972. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular treatment for schizophrenia. J Practical Nursing 22:16-19 and 20-22, 1972. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. LSD-induced psychosis and vitamin B-3 Amer J of Psychiatry. 128; 1155 only, 1972 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Senility is a form of chronic malnutrition. Report of a National Conference on The Crisis in Health Care For The Aging, sponsored by the Huxley Institute of Biosocial Research, New York, Mar. 6, 1972. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Clofibrate and nicotinic acid. Can Med Assoc J 107:488-489, 1972. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular treatment for schizophrenia. Medical Counterpart 4:10-20, 1973. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Mechanism of action of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in the treatment of schizophrenia. In, Orthomolecular Psychiatry, Eds. David Hawkins and Linus Pauling. WH Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1973. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Schizophrenia: An Evolutionary Advance. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 2:39, 1973.

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular therapy. Psychiatric Opinion 10:6-10, 1973. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. An examination of the double-blind method as it has been applied to megavitamin therapy. Orthomolecular Psychiatry 2:107-114, 1973.

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular treatment of schizophrenia. Can J Psychiat Nursing 14:11-14, 1973. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Adverse effects of niacin in emergent psychosis. J.A.M.A. 207:1355 only, 1973. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Learning disability. Can Med Assoc J 109:574 only, 1973. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Vitamin C and infertility. The Lancet 2:1146 only, 1973. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. The great vitamin spree – pro and con. BC Med J 15:350 only, 1973. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular psychiatry. BC Med J 16:137-140, 1974. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Hallucinogens. Encyclopedia Britannica 15th Ed., 557-560, 1974. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Double blind studies. Can Med Assoc J 111:752 only, 1974. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Treatment of choice. Saint Johns Edmonton Report, Volume 1, 1974. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. The megavitamin scene. The Lancet 2:908 only, 1974. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Hyperactivity, allergy and megavitamins. Can Med Assoc J 111:905-907, 1974. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Senility and chronic malnutrition. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 3:2-19, 1974.

Hoffer A. The orthomolecular controversy. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 3:164-166, 1974.

Hoffer A. History of orthomolecular psychiatry. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 3:223-230, 1974.

Hoffer A. The drug addictions. The Answer 11:2-5 & 38-40, 1974. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Calories, protein, lipids, carbohydrates and the Saccharine Disease. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 3:231-239, 1974.

Hoffer A. Treatment of schizophrenia. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 3:280-290, 1974.

Hoffer A. The relation of crime to nutrition. Humanist in Canada 34:2-9, 1975. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Nutrition and schizophrenia. Canadian Family Physician 21:78-82, 1975. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Nutrition and Schizophrenia; the debate continues. Canadian Family Physician 21:15-16, 1975. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. A note on folklore and medical discovery. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 4:211 only, 1975.

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Medicine: What is it, How does it work. Impact of Science on Society 25:233-244, 1975. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A, Kelm H & Osmond H. The Hoffer-Osmond Diagnostic Test. RE Krieger Pub Co. Huntington, New York, 1975. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. The orthomolecular controversy. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 5:54-67, 1976.

Hoffer A. Editorial. Establishment journal looks at orthomolecular psychiatry. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 5:78-83, 1976.

Hoffer A. Natural history and treatment of thirteen pairs of identical twins, schizophrenic and schizophrenic-spectrum conditions. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 5:101-122, 1976.

Hoffer A & Osmond H. Megavitamin Therapy. Can Schiz Foundation, Regina, 1976.

Stone I & Hoffer A. The genesis of medical myths

. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 5:163-168, 1976.

Hoffer A. Megavitamin therapy for different cases. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 5:169-182, 1976.

Hoffer A. Children with learning and behavioral disorders. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 5:228-230, 1976.

Hoffer A & Osmond H. In Reply to The American Psychiatric Association Task Force Report on Megavitamin and Orthomolecular Therapy in Psychiatry. Canadian Schizophrenia Foundation, Regina, Sask., now 16 Florence Ave., Toronto, ON, Canada M2N 1E9, August 1976. Full text posted at

Hoffer A. The double blind method. Can Psych Ass Journal 6:449-450, 1976. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Editorial. The Medical Model and Mileau Therapy. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 5:246-252, 1976.

Hoffer A. Editorials. Does ascorbic acid destroy vitamin B-12? and Crime: the price of chemical tranquility. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 6:2-7, 1977.

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular psychiatry in theory and practice. Drug Therapy 79-85, 1977.

Hoffer A. On evidence. Canadian Doctor 43:30 only, 1977. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Evidence and belief. Can Med Assoc J 117:733-734, 1977. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. To the Editor. Tardive dyskinesia treated with manganese. Can Med Assoc J 117:859 only, 1977. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. An Interview. Ex-POW Bull Volume 34, Sept 30-33 and Oct 19-23, 1977. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Editorial. Rules of inquiry. About the APA Task Force on Megavitamin Therapy and Orthomolecular Psychiatry. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 7:82-85, 1978.

Hoffer A. Diagnosing depression. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 7:177-179, 1978.

Hoffer A & Walker M: Orthomolecular Nutrition. Keats Pub, New Canaan, CT, 1978. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Some theoretical principles basic to orthomolecular psychiatric treatment. In: Ecologic-Biochemical Approaches to Treatment of Delinquents and Criminals. Ed. LJ Hippchen. Van Nostrand-Reinhold Co, New York, 31-55, 1978. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Letter to Editor. Megavitamins versus tranquilizer therapy. Canadian Family Physician 24:410 only, 1978. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. and Osmond H. Color in our Pills, J Orthomolecular Medicine 8:2, 1979.

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular psychiatry. Proc Section World Congress Biol Psychiatry, Barcelona, 1978. Elsevier North Holland Biomedical Press BV Amsterdam 1979. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Obsessions and depression. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 8:78-81, 1979.

Hoffer A. Behavioral nutrition. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 8:169-175, 1979.

Hoffer A. Crime, punishment and treatment. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 8:193-199, 1979.

Hoffer A & Walker M: Nutrients to Age Without Senility. Keats Pub Inc, New Canaan, CT, 1980(No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Newer trends in orthomolecular medicine. Newsletter, Northwest Academy Preventive Med 7 pages 3 and 6, 1980. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Osmond H. Schizophrenia. another long term follow-up in Canada. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 9:107-113, 1980.

Hoffer A. To the Editor. Crime and delinquency. A reply to H Wagemaker, Biol Psychiatry 15:171-172, 1980. Biological Psychiatry 26:249-250, 1980. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Mega amino acid therapy. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 9:2-5, 1980.

Hoffer A. Allergy, depression and tricyclic anti-depressants. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 9:164-170, 1980.

Hoffer A. Megavitamins Biol Psychiatry 15:821-2, 1980 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Letter to the Editor, re critique of Leonard Hippchen’s book, Ecologic-Biochemical Approaches to Treatment of Delinquents and Criminals, by T. J. Gaensbauer. Crime and Delinquency 26:249-250, 1980. (No known electronic link)

Osmond H & Hoffer A. Naturally occurring endogenous major and minor tranquilizers. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 9:198-206, 1980.

Hoffer A. Megavitamin Therapy. In: The Psychotherapy Handbook. 370-374, Ed.R Herink. New American Library, New York, 1980. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. The Adrenochrome Hypothesis of Schizophrenia Revisited. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 10:98-118, 1981.

Hoffer A. Editorial. Mercury-Silver Amalgams. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 11:2 only, 1982.

Hoffer A. Why nicotinic acid lowers lipid levels. Can Med Assoc J 128:372 only, 1983. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Nutrition and cancer. Anabolism, J Preventive Med 2:5-7, 1983. Ed. R Powell, La Jolla, CA. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Nutrition and behavior. In, Medical Applications of Clinical Nutrition. Ed. J Bland. Keats Pub, New Canaan CT, 222-251, 1983. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Latent Huntington’s disease – response to orthomolecular treatment. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 12:44-47, 1983.

Hoffer A. Update: (a) treatment of multiple sclerosis with hyperbaric oxygen. (b) Niacin hepatitis. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 12:89-90, 1983. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular nutrition at the zoo. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 12:116-128, 1983. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Editorial. Criticism. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 12:252-259, 1983.

Hoffer A. Oxidation-reduction in the brain. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 12:292-301, 1983.

Hoffer A. Comments on prevention. Canada’s Mental Health 32:23 only, 1984. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Megavitamin therapy. Times Colonist, Victoria, BC, March 29, 1984. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Nutritional ignorance. B.C. Med J 26:345 only, 1984. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Letter to Editor. Health Food Retailing, Australia, September 1984, page 25 only. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular treatment of schizophrenia. Society for Environmental Therapy 4:3-6, 1984. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Treating schizophrenia. Australasian Health and Healing 4:7-14, 1984. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Gastric bypass surgery and nutrient deficiency. Can Med Assoc J 131:1019 only, 1984(No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Editorial. The Controversial Vitamins. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 13:2-5, 1984.

Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3 (Niacin). Keats Pub, New Canaan CT, 1984. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Editorial. The tomato effect. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 13:142-143, 1984.

Hoffer A. Editorial. On pain, developmental defects, and vitamin safety. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 14:2-4, 1985.

Hoffer A. Foreword to Living With Schizophrenia. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 14:39-41, 1985.

Hoffer A. Editorial. A basic flaw in modern medical research. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 14:82-84, 1985.

Hoffer A. Thyroid and cancer. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 14:85-87, 1985.

Hoffer A. Huntington’s disease: a follow-up. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 13:42-44, 1984.

Hoffer A. Letter to Editor. Nutrition Today, About Niacin 20:36 only, 1985. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Dopamine, noradrenalin and adrenalin metabolism to methylated or chrome indole derivatives: two pathways or one? J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 14:262-272, 1985.

Hoffer A. Ascorbic acid and kidney stones. Can Med Assoc J 132:320 only, 1985. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Children’s Multiple Vitamin overuse lead to overdose CMAJ 133:13 only, 1985 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3. Can Med Assoc J 135:1250 only, 1986. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Vitamin Therapy For Hyperactivity and Schizophrenia. a family’s struggle. J Orthomolecular Medicine 1:57-62, 1986.

Hoffer A. Editorial. The New Debate in Nutrition. J Orthomolecular Medicine 1:72 only, 1986.

Hoffer A. Editorial. Nutrition in Institutions Controlled by Physicians. J Orthomolecular Medicine 1:216-218, 1986.

Hoffer A. Editorial. Seminar on Orthomolecular Medicine. Ben Gurion University Medical Center, May 21, 1987. J Orthomolecular Medicine 2:2 only, 1987.

Hoffer A. Editorial. Why Flog a Dead Horse?  J Orthomolecular Medicine 2:74 only, 1987.

Hoffer A. Editorials: ‘Schizophrenia and Suicide’ and ‘Let’s Help the FDA’. J Orthomolecular Medicine 2:144-145, 1987.

Hoffer A. Is There a Conspiracy? J Orthomolecular Medicine 2:158-165, 1987.

Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3 CMAJ 137:12 only, 1987 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Linus Pauling Honors the Canadian Schizophrenia Foundation. J Orthomolecular Medicine 2:183-184, 1987.

Hoffer A. How to Study a Controversial Area in Medicine. J Orthomolecular Medicine 3:207-210, 1987.

Hoffer A. Further Report on a Schizophrenic Patient who had Hyperasparaginemia J Orthomolecular Medicine 2:213-216, 1987.

Hoffer A. Editorial. Winds of Change. J Orthomolecular Medicine 2:221-222, 1987. Editorial.

Hoffer A. Control of Huntington’s Disease by Orthomolecular Treatment. J Orthomolecular Medicine 2:229 only, 1987.

Hoffer A. Editorial. How Can Anything So Simple Help Something So Complicated? J Orthomolecular Medicine 3:2 only, 1988.

Hoffer A. Letter to Editor. Fluoridation: why is it not more widely adopted? Can Med Assoc J 138:11 only, 1988. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Common Questions on Schizophrenia and Their Answers. Keats Pub, New Canaan, CT, 1988. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Can alternative and conventional treatments of cancer co-exist? Health Sciences Program, University Extension and Community Relations, University of Victoria, Feb 8, 1989. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Medicine for Physicians. Keats Pub, New Canaan, CT, 1989. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. In Memoriam: Carl C. Pfeiffer, B.A., Ph.D., M.D. 1908-1988 and Here.  J Orthomolecular Medicine 4:3-5, 1989.

Hoffer A. The Discovery of Vitamin C: Albert Szent-Gyorgi, M.D. Ph.D. 1893-1986. J Orthomolecular Medicine 4:24-26, 1989.

Hoffer A. Editorial. This is What They Said about Medical Mavericks. J Orthomolecular Medicine 4:54-57, 1989.

Hoffer A. The Bristol Regimen for Cancer Treatment CMAJ 144:411-412, 1989 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. The Fluoride Controversy – The First Forty Years. J Orthomolecular Medicine 4:119-122, 1989.

Hoffer A. Preface. In The Best of Health. The 101 Best Books. Sheldon Zerden, Four Walls Eight Windows, New York, xi- xii, 1989 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Editorial. An Historical Note. J Orthomolecular Medicine 4:183-184, 1989.

Hoffer A. Niacin, Coronary Disease and Longevity. J Orthomolecular Medicine 4:211-220, 1989.

Hoffer A. Letter to Editor. Dr. Reading under fire in Australia. J Orthomolecular Medicine 4:234-235, 1989. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Vitamin and mineral supplements increase intelligence. Nutrition Health Review, Fall 1989

Hoffer, A. Editorial. Psychiatry J Orthomolecular Medicine 2:59, 1990

Hoffer A. Editorial. Adrenochrome Hypothesis Revisited. J Orthomolecular Medicine 5:3 only, 1990.

Hoffer A & Osmond H. The Adrenochrome Hypothesis and Psychiatry. J Orthomolecular Medicine 5:32-45, 1990.

Hoffer A. Cancer and Vitamin C. J Orthomolecular Medicine 5:123 only, 1990.

Hoffer A, Walker, M: Senility is not inevitable – history proves otherwise – notable historic figures accomplished great things at advanced ages. Nutrition Health Review, Winter 1990

Hoffer A & Pauling L.  Hardin Jones biostatistical analysis of mortality data for cohorts of cancer patients with a large fraction surviving at the termination of the study and a comparison of survival times of cancer patients receiving large regular oral doses of vitamin C and other nutrients with similar patients not receiving those doses. J Orthomolecular Medicine 5:143-154, 1990. Reprinted in, Cancer and Vitamin C, E Cameron and L Pauling, Camino Books, Inc. P.O. Box 59026, Phil. PA, 19102, 1993.

Hoffer A. & Pauling L. Oral Citrus Seed Extract in Atopic Eczema: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies on Intestinal Microflora. J Orthomolecular Medicine 5:155, 1990.

Hoffer A. Editorial. More on fluoride, on mercury and teeth, and on Alaska Bill #146. J Orthomolecular Medicine 5:187-188, 1990.

Hoffer A. The prevention of tardive dyskinesia (tranquilizer induced illness). Open Forum for Health Information of New Zealand, Aug-Sept 1990, 17-20. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3 (Niacin) Update. New Roles For a Key Nutrient in Diabetes, Cancer, Heart Disease and Other Major Health Problems. Keats Pubs., Inc., New Canaan, CT, 1990. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Letter to editor. Megavitamin and megamineral therapy in childhood. Reply to Appeltauer LC. Can Med Assoc J 145:105 only, 1991. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Megavitamin and megamineral therapy in childhood. Can Med Assoc J 144:845-846, 1991. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Editorials. Linus Pauling’s 90th birthday. (and) National Cancer Institute and vitamin C. (and) In Memoriam: William Beebe, M.D. J Orthomolecular Medicine 6:3-4, 1991.

Hoffer A. Megavitamin and megamineral therapy in childhood. Can Med Assoc J, 144:845-846, 1991. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Does decreasing cholesterol levels increase the death rate from accidents, homicides and suicide? J Orthomolecular Medicine 6:44-45, 1991.

Hoffer A. Editorial. Freedom of Choice Wins More Freedom. J Orthomolecular Medicine 6:55-56, 1991.

Hoffer A. Report of the Pharmaceutical Inquiry of Ontario on Alternative Therapies. J Orthomolecular Medicine 6:104-109, 1991.

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Medicine. In: Molecules In Natural Science and Medicine, An Encomium for Linus Pauling. Ed ZB Maksic & M Eckert-Maksic, Ellis Horwood Ltd, Chichester, West Sussex, England, 1991. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Double standard in the control of drugs and nutrients. Healthy Options, 11-13, April/May, New Zealand, 1991. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Niacin Reaction. J of Family Practice, 34: 677 only, 1992. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Protection against ultraviolet radiation. Can Med Ass J, 147:839-840, 1992(No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Re: Antioxidant vitamins. British Columbia Medical Association Journal, 35:148 only, 1993. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Isoniazid and pyridoxine. Can Med Assoc J, 149:1232 only, 1993. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Pauling L: Hardin Jones Biostatistical Analysis of Mortality Data for Cohorts of Cancer Patients with a Large Fraction Surviving at the Termination of the Study and a Comparison of Survival Times of Cancer Patients Receiving Large Regular Oral Doses of Vitamin C and Other Nutrients with Similar Patients not Receiving those Doses. J Orthomolecular Medicine 5:143-154, 1990. Reprinted in Cancer and Vitamin C, E. Cameron and L. Pauling, Camino Books, Inc. P.O. Box 59026, Phil. PA 19102, 1993.

Hoffer A. The True Cost of Cynicism. Why Vitamin E was Ignored as Heart Therapy for 40 Years. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine Vol. 7, No. 4, 1992

Hoffer A. Editorial: The Politics of Medical Research; Alternative Medicine Liberated in a Second State. J of Orthomolecular Medicine, 8:3-5, 1993.

Hoffer A. A case of Alzheimer’s treated with nutrients and aspirin. J of Orthomolecular Medicine 8:43-44, 1993.

Letter. Hoffer A. Bill W. Cofounder of Alcoholics Anonymous and Vitamin B-3. J of Orthomolecular Medicine 8:57-58, 1993.

Hoffer A. Misconduct in High Places; Freedom to Practice Complementary Medicine Gaining Momentum. J of Orthomolecular Medicine, 8:67-68, 1993.

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular medicine advances into the mainstream. J of Orthomolecular Medicine, 8:99-103, 1993.

Hoffer A. Editorial Lysine, Ascorbic Acid and Angina Pectoris; The Discovery of Heparin. J of Orthomolecular Medicine, 8:131, 1993.

Hoffer A & Pauling L: Hardin Jones biostatistical analysis of mortality data for a second set of cohorts of cancer patients with a large fraction surviving at the termination of the study and a comparison of survival times of cancer patients receiving large regular oral doses of vitamin C and other nutrients with similar patients not receiving these doses. J of Orthomolecular Medicine, 8:157-167, 1993.

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Oncology. In, Adjuvant Nutrition in Cancer Treatment, Ed. P Quillin & RM Williams. 1992 Symposium Proceedings, Sponsored by Cancer Treatment Research Foundation and American College of Nutrition. Cancer Treatment Research Foundation, 3455 Salt Creek Lane, Suite 200, Arlington Heights, IL 60005-1090, 331-362, 1994. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A & Walker M: Smart Nutrients – A Guide to Nutrients That Can Prevent and Reverse Senility. Avery Publishing Group, Garden City Park, NY, 1994. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Nutritional Relief for Schizophrenia. Health Naturally, 28-29, Dec 1993/Jan 1994. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. The Megavitamin Revolution. Health Counselor, 5:8-9, 1994.

Hoffer A. Chronic schizophrenic patients treated ten years or more. J. Orthomolecular Medicine, 9:7-37, 1994.

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Oncology and Survival. 2nd International Symposium, Adjuvant Nutrition in Cancer Treatment, San Diego, Mar 17-19, 1994. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3 and Schizophrenia. Discovery, Recovery, Controversy. Quarry Press, Kingston, ON, 1995. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A : Vitamin C and Cancer: Discovery, Recovery, Controversy. Quarry Press, Kingston, ON, 1995. (No known electronic link) Review

Hoffer A: The Discovery of Kryptopyrrole and its Importance in Diagnosis of Biochemical Imbalances in Schizophrenia and in Criminal Behavior. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Volume 10, First Quarter, 1995, p 3.

Hoffer A. A dedication to Linus Pauling. The Health Guardian. Health Guard Distributing Corporation, Burnaby, BC, 1:2 only, 1995. (No known electronic link).

Hoffer A. Nutrition Therapy for Cancer Patients. 3rd International Symposium, Adjuvant Nutrition in Cancer Treatment. Tampa, Florida, Sept 28-30, 1995 (No known electronic link).

Hoffer A. Editorial: Double blind studies often the bane of health advancement; (and) Report on disciplinary proceeding: the State of New York against Warren Levin, M.D. J of Orthomolecular Medicine, 9:195-198, 1994.

Hoffer A. Another anecdote of schizophrenia. Psychological activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) J. Orthomolecular Medicine 10:68-69, 1995.

Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3: Niacin and its amide. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients No. 147, Oct 1995, 30-39.

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Treatment of Cancer. In, Nutrients in Cancer Prevention and Treatment. Ed. Prasad KN, Santamaria L & Williams RM. Pages 373-391, 1995, Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey.

Hoffer A. Treatment of Schizophrenia. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients No. 144, July 1995, 52-57. (No known electronic link).

Hoffer A: Editorial – The Megavitamin Revolution. Journal Of Orthomolecular Medicine Vol. 7, No. 1, 1995

Hoffer A. Schizophrenia. An Evolutionary Defense Against Severe Stress. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients No. 151/152, Feb/March 1996. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Inside Schizophrenia: Before and After Treatment, J Orthomolecular Medicine 11:45, 1996

Hoffer A. Hoffer’s Law of Natural Nutrition. Quarry Press, Kingston, ON, 1996. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. The Vitamin Paradigm Wars. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients No. 155, 56-60, 1996.

Hoffer A. Using Vitamins and Nutrition to Help Schizophrenics. An Orthomolecular Alternative. Schizophrenia Digest, 3:13-15, 1996. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Epidermolysis Bullosa. A Zinc Dependent Condition? Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients No.161, Dec 1996, 62-63. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A; One Patient’s Recovery from Lymphoma Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients No.160, 50-51, 1996.

Hoffer A. Interview by Dr. J. Wright. In Let’s Live 64, 31-33, 1996. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Schizophrenia. Interviewed by Linda Lazarides, Nutritional Therapy Today 6:6-8, 1996, with an addendum in a letter. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. How To Live Longer and Feel Better – Even With Cancer. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine 11:147-167, 1996.

Hoffer A. Editorial: The Future of Psychiatry. Vol. 11, No. 1, 1996

Hoffer A. Huntington’s Disease. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients No.163/164, 46-51, 1997. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Arthritis . Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. December, No. 173 104 to 106, 1997 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Lupus Erythematosis. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, No. 171, 74 to 75, 1997. Reprinted same journal No. 93/194, page 22-23, 1999 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. An anecdote describing the treatment of one case of schizophrenia. No. 168, page 76-79, 1997 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Interview by Peter Barry Chowka On Orthomolecular Medicine, 1997

Cover Story Amer J Natural Med June Gaining Control of Schizophrenia 5:21-25, 1998 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Editorial July/August (1998?) Amer J Natural Med. Treatment of Children with Learning and/or Behavioral Disorders (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. The niacin story: The first orthomolecular compound Amer J Natural Med, 5, 10-3, 1998 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Treating Children with Learning and/or Behavior Disorders. Amer J of Natural Med Editorial 5; 7-9, 1998 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Psychiatry. The Whole Mind, Ed L. Bassman, New World Library, 14 Pamaron Way. Novato, Cal. 94949, Pages 423-432, 1998 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Stress Busters. Great Life 1; 28-31, 1998 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Treatment of Schizophrenia. Complementary Medicine. Official Journal of the South African Complementary Medicine Association. 4, 9-14, 1998 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Unproven cancer therapies 31, 160 only, 1998 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Psychiatry in Theory and Practice. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients No. 174, 107-111, 1998. (Morton Walker wrote an editorial to commemorate my 80th birthday on page 107.) (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Alzheimer’s – An Anecdote (letter) Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, No.179, 107-109, 1998 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Treatment for Schizophrenia. Natural Med J, 2, 12-13, 1999 (No known electronic link)

Orthomolecular Medicine, An interview with Abram Hoffer, Latitudes 3:6-10,1998 (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Aging Without Senility . Reprint from Smart Nutrients Alive, No. 204, 16-17, 1999

Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3 and Schizophrenia. Discovery, Recovery, Controversy. Quarry Press, Kingston, ON, 1999. (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. Letter in Nutrition and Healing Newsletter, by Jonathan V Wright, March 2000, page 8. On Multiple sclerosis, niacin and histamine (No known electronic link)

Hoffer A. How OrthoMolecular Medicine Can Help. Finding Care for Depression, December 2000

Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3 and Schizophrenia. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients; 4/1/2001

Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3 Does Not Cure Tranquilizer Psychoses. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, April 2001

Hoffer A. Selenium and AIDS – Book Corners. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, November 2001

Hoffer A. Editorial: “Toxic” Vitamins. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Vol. 18, Third and Fourth Quarters, 2003 from their Special Issue on The Safety and Efficacy of Vitamins.

Hoffer A. Comments on Comments on “Mega-Dose Vitamins and Minerals in the Treatment of Nonmetastatic Breast… Integr Cancer Ther .2003; 2: 155-157.

Hoffer A. Schizophrenia and cancer: the adrenochrome balanced morphism, Medical Hypotheses, Volume 62, Issue 3, March 2004, Pages 415-419

Hoffer A. Lies, damn lies and statistics: the statistics game. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, October 2004

Hoffer A, Foster, HD: Schizophrenia and cancer: the adrenochrome balanced morphism, Med Hypotheses. 2004;62(3):415-9

Hoffer A, Foster, HD: The two faces of L-DOPA. Benefits and adverse side effects in the treatment of Encephalitis lethargica, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Med Hypotheses. 2004;62(2):177-81

Hoffer A. Niacin, Coronary disease and Longevity

Hoffer A. Integrative, Complementary Treatment Options for Cancer with Orthomolecular Medicine

Hoffer A. The Schizophrenias

Hoffer A: Clinical Procedures in Treating Terminally Ill Cancer Patients with Vitamin C. Supportive Vitamin C Therapy for Cancer Patients

Hoffer A. High Doses of Antioxidants Including Vitamin C Do Not Decrease the Efficacy of Chemotherapy. Reprinted with permission of the author and the Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, 911 Tyler Street, Pt. Townsend WA 98368; (360) 385-6021

Hoffer A. The Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine and its Development 1967-1996. The Journal of Orthomolecular (“Megavitamin”) Medicine

Hoffer A. Megavitamin Therapy for Psychosis. Psychosis Cured with Vitamin Therapy: Nutrition Protocols and Case Histories of Dr. A. Hoffer

Hoffer A. Clinical Procedures in Treating Terminally Ill Cancer Patients with Vitamin C. Supportive Vitamin C Therapy for Cancer Patients.

Hoffer A. FACTS AND FACTOIDS: An Information Sheet for Patients. Getting to the Facts .

Hoffer A. Review of the Doctor Yourself Newsletter by Andrew Saul

Hoffer A. An Introduction to Placebo Medicine. From the book DOCTOR YOURSELF by Andrew Saul.

Hoffer A. An Introduction to 20 Ways To Make Nutritional Progress Against Diabetes by Andrew Saul

Hoffer A. An Introduction to A Protocol for Alcohol by Andrew Saul

Hoffer A. An Introduction to Bad Behavior and Illness are caused by Biochemical Imbalances by Ronald C. Dishinger

Hoffer A. About Abram Hoffer

Hoffer A. Some of the Best Books Ever on Megavitamin Therapy and Clinical Nutrition. A Listing of Book Reviews

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