Dr. Weeks’ Comment: In 1970 John Franz, employed by Monsanto, invented the key toxin in RoundUp™ and in 2007, he was introduced into the National Inventor’s Hall of Fame for his invention of glyphosate. http://invent.org/inductee-detail/?IID=333.
What is glyphosate? It is – simply put – your worst biological nightmare and getting worse by the year as more and more science condemns it for not only killing weeds but also for ravaging the life-saving flora in our own guts – our micro biome – the symbiotic symphony within. READ THIS and THIS. Dr. Stephanie Seneff of MIT is convinced that glyphosate substitutes for glycine in protein synthesis and is directly responsible for many consequent chronic illnesses. WATCH THIS.
The old time docs taught that all illness begins in the gut and leaky gut, and all its sequelae are triggered by this toxin. Finally, we find that glyphosate fosters super bugs – anti-biotic resistance.
Any hope to escape this plague of our time? Yes. First of all, get your own level of glyphosate tested by this simple urine test. Second, eat organic food.
Sublethal exposure to commercial formulations of the herbicides dicamba, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and glyphosate cause changes in antibiotic susceptibility in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
Biocides, such as herbicides, are routinely tested for toxicity but not for sublethal effects on microbes. Many biocides are known to induce an adaptive multiple-antibiotic resistance phenotype. This can be due to either an increase in the expression of efflux pumps, a reduced synthesis of outer membrane porins, or both. Exposures of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to commercial formulations of three herbicides-dicamba (Kamba), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and glyphosate (Roundup)-were found to induce a changed response to antibiotics. Killing curves in the presence and absence of sublethal herbicide concentrations showed that the directions and the magnitudes of responses varied by herbicide, antibiotic, and species. When induced, MICs of antibiotics of five different classes changed up to 6-fold. In some cases the MIC increased, and in others it decreased. Herbicide concentrations needed to invoke the maximal response were above current food maximum residue levels but within application levels for all herbicides. Compounds that could cause induction had additive effects in combination. The role of soxS, an inducer of the AcrAB efflux pump, was tested in β-galactosidase assays with soxS-lacZ fusion strains of E. coli. Dicamba was a moderate inducer of the sox regulon. Growth assays with Phe-Arg β-naphtylamide (PAβN), an efflux pump inhibitor, confirmed a significant role of efflux in the increased tolerance of E. coli to chloramphenicol in the presence of dicamba and to kanamycin in the presence of glyphosate. Pathways of exposure with relevance to the health of humans, domestic animals, and critical insects are discussed.
Increasingly common chemicals used in agriculture, domestic gardens, and public places can induce a multiple-antibiotic resistance phenotype in potential pathogens. The effect occurs upon simultaneous exposure to antibiotics and is faster than the lethal effect of antibiotics. The magnitude of the induced response may undermine antibiotic therapy and substantially increase the probability of spontaneous mutation to higher levels of resistance. The combination of high use of both herbicides and antibiotics in proximity to farm animals and important insects, such as honeybees, might also compromise their therapeutic effects and drive greater use of antibiotics. To address the crisis of antibiotic resistance requires broadening our view of environmental contributors to the evolution of resistance.
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Herbicide ingredients change Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and Escherichia coli antibiotic responses.
Herbicides are frequently released into both rural and urban environments. Commercial herbicide formulations induce adaptive changes in the way bacteria respond to antibiotics. Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and Escherichia coli were exposed to common co-formulants of formulations, and S. enterica sv. Typhimurium was exposed to active ingredients dicamba, 2,4-D and glyphosate to determine what ingredients of the commercial formulations caused this effect. Co-formulants Tween80 and carboxymethyl cellulose induced changes in response, but the pattern of the responses differed from the active ingredients, and effect sizes were smaller. A commercial wetting agent did not affect antibiotic responses. Active ingredients induced changes in antibiotic responses similar to those caused by complete formulations. This occurred at or below recommended application concentrations. Targeted deletion of efflux pump genes largely neutralized the adaptive response in the cases of increased survival in antibiotics, indicating that the biochemistry of induced resistance was the same for formulations and specific ingredients. We found that glyphosate, dicamba, and 2,4-D, as well as co-formulants in commercial herbicides, induced a change in susceptibility of the potentially pathogenic bacteria E. coli and S. enterica to multiple antibiotics. This was measured using the efficiency of plating (EOP), the relative survival of the bacteria when exposed to herbicide and antibiotic, or just antibiotic, compared to survival on permissive media. This work will help to inform the use of non-medicinal chemical agents that induce changes in antibiotic responses.