113: Mol Psychiatry. 2000 Mar;5(2):142-9.
Disease-specific alterations in frontal cortex brain proteins in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. The
Johnston-Wilson NL, Sims CD, Hofmann JP, Anderson L, Shore AD, Torrey EF, Yolken RH.
Severe psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are brain diseases of unknown origin. No biological marker has been documented at the pathological, cellular, or molecular level, suggesting that a number of complex but subtle changes underlie these illnesses. We have used proteomic technology to survey postmortem tissue to identify changes linked to the various diseases. Proteomics uses two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric sequencing of proteins to allow the comparison of subsets of expressed proteins among a large number of samples. This form of analysis was combined with a multivariate statistical model to study changes in protein levels in 89 frontal cortices obtained postmortem from individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and non-psychiatric controls. We identified eight protein species that display disease-specific alterations in level in the frontal cortex. Six show decreases compared with the non-psychiatric controls for one or more diseases. Four of these are forms of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), one is dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2, and the sixth is ubiquinone cytochrome c reductase core protein 1. Two spots, carbonic anhydrase 1 and fructose biphosphate aldolase C, show increase in one or more diseases compared to controls. Proteomic analysis may identify novel pathogenic mechanisms of human neuropsychiatric diseases.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jan 25;102(4):1187-92. Epub 2005 Jan 18.
A form of DISC1 enriched in nucleus: altered subcellular distribution in orbitofrontal cortex in psychosis and substance/alcohol abuse.
Sawamura N, Sawamura-Yamamoto T, Ozeki Y, Ross CA, Sawa A.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) was identified as the sole gene whose ORF is truncated and cosegregates with major mental illnesses in a Scottish family. DISC1 has also been suggested, by association and linkage studies, to be a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (SZ) in independent populations. However, no analysis of DISC1 protein in human brains, especially those of patients with SZ, has yet been conducted. Here we performed a biochemical analysis of DISC1 protein in a well characterized set of autopsied brains, including brains of patients with SZ, bipolar disorder, and major depression (MD), as well as normal control brains. We identified an isoform of DISC1 by using MS and demonstrated that it is enriched in the nucleus of HeLa cells. In the orbitofrontal cortex, the subcellular distribution of this DISC1 isoform, assessed by the nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio in the immunoreactivity of the isoform, is significantly changed in brains from patients with SZ and MD. This altered distribution is also observed in those subjects with substance and alcohol abuse. The changes in MD brains are significantly influenced by substance/alcohol abuse as well as postmortem interval; however, the alteration in SZ brains is free from brain-associated confounding factors, although an interaction with substance/alcohol abuse cannot be completely ruled out. These results suggest that DISC1 may be implicated in psychiatric conditions in other populations than the unique Scottish family.