Dr. Weeks’ Comment: No one makes money teaching prevention or nutritional treatments but the science is compelling that first you need to feed your cancer process differently. That is the foundation of Corrective Cancer Care: assume an intelligent design and treat your body sensibly. Correct and enhance your safety NET (Nutrition, Exercise and Though) in consultation with your oncologist.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jun 17;105(24):8369-74. Epub 2008 Jun 16.
Department of Urology, The Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, 2340 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA.
Epidemiological and prospective studies indicate that comprehensive lifestyle changes may modify the progression of prostate cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms by which improvements in diet and lifestyle might affect the prostate microenvironment are poorly understood. We conducted a pilot study to examine changes in prostate gene expression in a unique population of men with low-risk prostate cancer who declined immediate surgery, hormonal therapy, or radiation and participated in an intensive nutrition and lifestyle intervention while undergoing careful surveillance for tumor progression. Consistent with previous studies, significant improvements in weight, abdominal obesity, blood pressure, and lipid profile were observed (all P < 0.05), and surveillance of low-risk patients was safe. Gene expression profiles were obtained from 30 participants, pairing RNA samples from control prostate needle biopsy taken before intervention to RNA from the same patient’s 3-month postintervention biopsy. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate array observations for selected transcripts. Two-class paired analysis of global gene expression using significance analysis of microarrays detected 48 up-regulated and 453 down-regulated transcripts after the intervention. Pathway analysis identified significant modulation of biological processes that have critical roles in tumorigenesis, including protein metabolism and modification, intracellular protein traffic, and protein phosphorylation (all P < 0.05). Intensive nutrition and lifestyle changes may modulate gene expression in the prostate. Understanding the prostate molecular response to comprehensive lifestyle changes may strengthen efforts to develop effective prevention and treatment. Larger clinical trials are warranted to confirm the results of this pilot study.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Feb;108(2):347-56.
Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.
Nutr Cancer. 2007;58(1):35-42.
Preventive Medicine Research Institute, 900 Bridgeway, Sausalito, CA 94965, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
High levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are associated with increased risk of prostate cancer, whereas increased levels of some of its binding proteins (IGFBPs) seem to be protective. High intakes of dietary protein, especially animal and soy protein, appear to increase IGF-1. However, soy isoflavones have demonstrated anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects both in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated dietary intakes of total protein and soy isoflavones in relation to the IGF axis in prostate cancer patients making comprehensive lifestyle changes including a very low-fat vegan diet supplemented with soy protein (58 g/day). After one year, intervention group patients reported significantly higher intakes of dietary protein and soy isoflavones compared to usual-care controls (P < 0.001). IGF-1 increased significantly in both groups, whereas IGFBP-1 rose in the experimental group only (P < 0.01). Increases in vegetable protein over one year were associated with increases in IGFBP-1 among intervention group patients (P < 0.05).
These results suggest that dietary protein and soy isoflavones, in the context of comprehensive lifestyle changes, may not significantly alter IGF-1. However, given the recent literature indicating that high intake of protein rich in essential amino acids (animal or soy protein) may increase IGF-1, it may be prudent for men with early stage prostate cancer not to exceed dietary protein recommendations.
Urology. 2006 Jan;67(1):125-30.
Preventive Medicine Research Institute, Sausalito, California 94965, USA. email@example.com
To assess the impact of lifestyle on health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), perceived stress, and self-reported sexual function in men with early-stage prostate cancer electing active surveillance.
A total of 44 intervention and 49 usual-care control participants were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial examining the effects of lifestyle changes on prostate cancer progression. The intervention consisted of a low-fat, vegan diet, exercise, and stress management. Participants completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Status Survey (a measure of mental and physical HR-QOL), the Perceived Stress Scale, the Sexual Function subscale of the University of California, Los Angeles, Prostate Cancer Index, and measures of lifestyle behaviors (to yield an overall lifestyle index) at baseline and 12 months. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance for repeated measures. The relationship between lifestyle and QOL was also analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses.
Intervention participants had significantly improved their lifestyle compared with controls at 12 months. The quality-of-life scores were high across groups and time points. However, a healthier lifestyle was related to better QOL at baseline. Participants in both groups who reported a healthier lifestyle also reported better mental and physical HR-QOL and sexual function. Furthermore, participants whose lifestyle improved over time showed enhanced physical HR-QOL and decreased perceived stress.
Men who choose active surveillance for early-stage prostate cancer are able to make comprehensive lifestyle changes. Although the average QOL was already high in this sample, individuals who improved their lifestyle enhanced their QOL further.
Urology. 2008 Dec;72(6):1319-23. Epub 2008 Jul 7.
Department of Psychology and Social Behavior, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA.
Previous research has demonstrated that patients with prostate cancer participating in the Prostate Cancer Lifestyle Trial had a reduction in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, inhibition of LNCaP cell growth, and fewer prostate cancer-related clinical events at the end of 1 year compared with controls. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical events in this trial during a 2-year period.
The Prostate Cancer Lifestyle Trial was a 1-year randomized controlled clinical trial of 93 patients with early-stage prostate cancer (Gleason score <7, PSA 4-10 ng/mL) undergoing active surveillance. The patients in the experimental arm were encouraged to adopt a low-fat, plant-based diet, to exercise and practice stress management, and to attend group support sessions. The control patients received the usual care.
By 2 years of follow-up, 13 of 49 (27%) control patients and 2 of 43 (5%) experimental patients had undergone conventional prostate cancer treatment (radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, or androgen deprivation, P < .05). No differences were found between the groups in other clinical events (eg, cardiac), and no deaths occurred. Three of the treated control patients but none of the treated experimental patients had a PSA level of >or=10 ng/mL, and 1 treated control patient but no treated experimental patients had a PSA velocity of >2 ng/mL/y before treatment. No significant differences were found between the untreated experimental and untreated control patients in PSA change or velocity at the end of 2 years.
Patients with early-stage prostate cancer choosing active surveillance might be able to avoid or delay conventional treatment for at least 2 years by making changes in their diet and lifestyle.
Lancet Oncol. 2008 Nov;9(11):1048-57. Epub 2008 Sep 15.
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Lancet Oncol. 2008 Dec;9(12):1124.
Telomeres are protective DNA-protein complexes at the end of linear chromosomes that promote chromosomal stability. Telomere shortness in human beings is emerging as a prognostic marker of disease risk, progression, and premature mortality in many types of cancer, including breast, prostate, colorectal, bladder, head and neck, lung, and renal cell. Telomere shortening is counteracted by the cellular enzyme telomerase. Lifestyle factors known to promote cancer and cardiovascular disease might also adversely affect telomerase function. However, previous studies have not addressed whether improvements in nutrition and lifestyle are associated with increases in telomerase activity. We aimed to assess whether 3 months of intensive lifestyle changes increased telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).
30 men with biopsy-diagnosed low-risk prostate cancer were asked to make comprehensive lifestyle changes. The primary endpoint was telomerase enzymatic activity per viable cell, measured at baseline and after 3 months. 24 patients had sufficient PBMCs needed for longitudinal analysis. This study is registered on the ClinicalTrials.gov website, number NCT00739791.
PBMC telomerase activity expressed as natural logarithms increased from 2.00 (SD 0.44) to 2.22 (SD 0.49; p=0.031). Raw values of telomerase increased from 8.05 (SD 3.50) standard arbitrary units to 10.38 (SD 6.01) standard arbitrary units. The increases in telomerase activity were significantly associated with decreases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (r=-0.36, p=0.041) and decreases in psychological distress (r=-0.35, p=0.047).
Comprehensive lifestyle changes significantly increase telomerase activity and consequently telomere maintenance capacity in human immune-system cells. Given this finding and the pilot nature of this study, we report these increases in telomerase activity as a significant association rather than inferring causation. Larger randomised controlled trials are warranted to confirm the findings of this study.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Sep;105(9):1442-6.
Preventive Medicine Research Institute, Sausalito, CA, USA.
This study assessed the nutrient adequacy of a very low-fat vegan diet. Thirty-nine men (mean age=65 years) with early stage prostate cancer who chose the “watchful waiting” approach to disease management, were instructed by a registered dietitian and a chef on following a very low-fat (10%) vegan diet with the addition of a fortified soy protein powdered beverage. Three-day food diaries, excluding vitamin and mineral supplements, were analyzed and nutrient values were compared against Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Mean dietary intake met the recommended DRIs. On the basis of the Adequate Intake standard, a less than adequate intake was observed for vitamin D. This demonstrates that a very low-fat vegan diet with comprehensive nutrition education emphasizing nutrient-fortified plant foods is nutritionally adequate, with the exception of vitamin D. Vitamin D supplementation, especially for those with limited sun exposure, can help assure nutritional adequacy.
J Urol. 2005 Sep;174(3):1065-9; discussion 1069-70.
Ornish D, Weidner G, Fair WR, Marlin R, Pettengill EB, Raisin CJ, Dunn-Emke S, Crutchfield L, Jacobs FN, Barnard RJ, Aronson WJ, McCormac P, McKnight DJ, Fein JD, Dnistrian AM, Weinstein J, Ngo TH, Mendell NR, Carroll PR.
Department of Medicine, Preventive Medicine Research Institute, University of California-San Francisco, 94965, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Men with prostate cancer are often advised to make changes in diet and lifestyle, although the impact of these changes has not been well documented. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of comprehensive lifestyle changes on prostate specific antigen (PSA), treatment trends and serum stimulated LNCaP cell growth in men with early, biopsy proven prostate cancer after 1 year.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Patient recruitment was limited to men who had chosen not to undergo any conventional treatment, which provided an unusual opportunity to have a nonintervention randomized control group to avoid the confounding effects of interventions such as radiation, surgery or androgen deprivation therapy. A total of 93 volunteers with serum PSA 4 to 10 ng/ml and cancer Gleason scores less than 7 were randomly assigned to an experimental group that was asked to make comprehensive lifestyle changes or to a usual care control group.
None of the experimental group patients but 6 control patients underwent conventional treatment due to an increase in PSA and/or progression of disease on magnetic resonance imaging. PSA decreased 4% in the experimental group but increased 6% in the control group (p = 0.016). The growth of LNCaP prostate cancer cells (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, Virginia) was inhibited almost 8 times more by serum from the experimental than from the control group (70% vs 9%, p <0.001). Changes in serum PSA and also in LNCaP cell growth were significantly associated with the degree of change in diet and lifestyle.
Intensive lifestyle changes may affect the progression of early, low grade prostate cancer in men. Further studies and longer term follow up are warranted.