Dr. Weeks’ Comment: We breathe and walk through a toxic soup today in China in particular and LA also… we have fouled our environment. So how to detox? Well most ladies understand the benefits of cranberry (the seed in particular) and the importance of allowing the kidneys to detoxify. This underscores the importance of drinking the organic whole seed drink CORE which features cranberry seed, milk thistle seed and black cumin seed. What does black cumin seed do for kidney’s? Read on!
Ischemia-reperfusion, commonly seen in the fields of trauma surgery and renal transplantation, is a major cause of acute kidney injury and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The protective effects of Nigella sativa against ischemia-perfusion damage to various organs have been previously documented. However, its protective effects on kidney tissue against ischemia-reperfusion injury are unclear. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of Nigella sativa in modulating inflammation and apoptosis after renal I/R injury.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Thirty male Wistar-albino rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated, ischemia-reperfusion, and ischemia-reperfusion + Nigella sativa. Rats in the third group were given Nigella sativa 6 h prior to ischemia-reperfusion and at the beginning of reperfusion. All rats except those in the sham-operated group underwent 45 min of bilateral renal ischemia followed by 45 min of reperfusion. Blood samples and liver tissues were harvested from the rats, and then rats were sacrificed. Serum urea and creatinine levels were determined. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in kidney tissue and blood were measured. Kidney tissue histopathology was also evaluated. Results. Nigella sativa was effective in reducing serum urea and creatinine levels as well as decreasing the tubular necrosis score. Nigella sativa treatment significantly reduced OSI and TOS levels and increased TAC levels in both kidney tissue and blood.
The observed differences seem to demonstrate the protective effect of Nigella sativa against renal I/R injury in rat kidneys.
Renal ischaemia followed by reperfusion leads to acute renal failure in both native kidneys and renal allografts, which is a complex pathophysiologic process involving hypoxia and free radical (FR) damage. The oil of Nigella sativa (NSO) has been subjected to considerable pharmacological investigations that have revealed its antioxidant activity in different conditions. But there is no previously reported study about its effect on ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of kidneys. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of NSO in I/R-induced renal injury in rats.
Pre- and post-treatment with NSO produced reduction in serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine caused by I/R and significantly improved serum enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px) and also tissue enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT), SOD and GSH-Px. NSO treatment resulted in lower total oxidant status (TOS) and higher total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and also significant reduction in serum and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) that were increased by renal I/R injury. The kidneys of untreated ischaemic rats had a higher histopathological score, while treatment with NSO nearly preserved the normal morphology of the kidney.
In view of previous observations and our data, with the potent FR scavenger and antioxidant properties, NSO seems to be a highly promising agent for protecting tissues from oxidative damage and preventing organ damage due to renal I/R.
The protective effect of thymoquinone, an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, against renal injury: a review.
Thymoquinone (TQ), 2-Isopropyl-5-methyl-1, 4-benzoquinone, is one of the most active ingredients of Nigella Sativa seeds. TQ has a variety of beneficial properties including anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Studies have provided original observations on the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in the development of renal diseases such as glomerulonephritis and drug-induced nephrotoxicity. The renoprotective effects of TQ have been demonstrated in animal models. Also, TQ has been used successfully in treating allergic diseases in humans. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of reactive oxygen species in renal pathophysiology and the intriguing possibility for a role of TQ in the prevention of and/or protection from renal injury in humans.
Nephro-protective effect of vitamin C and Nigella sativa oil on gentamicin associated nephrotoxicity in rabbits.
Oxidative stress causes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that lead to nephrotoxicity. An aminoglycoside, gentamicin, has pronounced nephrotoxic effect in humans and animals and this study was planned to observe the nephro-protective effect of antioxidants, vitamin C and Nigella sativa oil. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and antioxidant activity were measured as indicators of nephrotoxicity for all the groups of rabbits. Results showed that vitamin C and Nigella sativa oil both had nephro-protective effect as they lowered the values of nephrotoxicity indicators (serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and antioxidant activity) as compared to gentamicin control group values. When these two antioxidants were given as combination, they proved to have synergistic nephro-protective effect.
Nigella sativa (black cumin) ameliorates potassium bromate-induced early events of carcinogenesis: diminution of oxidative stress.
Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is a potent nephrotoxic agent. In this paper, we report the chemopreventive effect of Nigella sativa (black cumin) on KBrO3-mediated renal oxidative stress, toxicity and tumor promotion response in rats. KBrO3 (125 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) enhances lipid peroxidation, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, hydrogen peroxide and xanthine oxidase with reduction in the activities of renal antioxidant enzymes and renal glutathione content. A marked increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine has also been observed. KBrO3 treatment also enhances ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and [3H] thymidine incorporation into renal DNA. Prophylaxis of rats orally with Nigella sativa extract (50 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg body weight) resulted in a significant decrease in renal microsomal lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (P < 0.001), H2O2 (P < 0.001) and xanthine oxidase (P < 0.05). There was significant recovery of renal glutathione content (P < 0.01) and antioxidant enzymes (P < 0.001). There was also reversal in the enhancement of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, renal ODC activity and DNA synthesis (P < 0.001). Data suggest that Nigella sativa is a potent chemopreventive agent and may suppress KBrO3-mediated renal oxidative stress, toxicity and tumour promotion response in rats.
Thymoquinone supplementation attenuates hypertension and renal damage in nitric oxide deficient hypertensive rats.
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the main constituent of the volatile oil from Nigella sativa seeds, in rats after chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis with N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl esters (l-NAME). Rats were divided randomly into different treatment groups: control, l-NAME, TQ and l-NAME + TQ. Hypertension was induced by 4 weeks administration of l-NAME (50 mg/kg/day p.o.). TQ was administered alone or in combination with l-NAME and continued for 4 weeks. The animals were killed, and the serum and kidney tissues were isolated for the determination of creatinine and glutathione (GSH), respectively. Rats receiving l-NAME showed a progressive increase in systolic blood pressure compared with control rats. Concomitant treatment with TQ (0.5 and 1 mg/kg/day p.o.) reduced the increase in systolic blood pressure induced by l-NAME in a dose dependent manner. Kidney injury was demonstrated by a significant increase in serum creatinine and a decrease in GSH in kidney tissue from l-NAME treated rats. Treatment of rats with TQ decreased the elevated creatinine and increased GSH to normal levels. TQ inhibited the in vitro production of superoxide radical in enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems. In conclusion, TQ is effective in protecting rats against l-NAME-induced hypertension and renal damage possibly via antioxidant activity.
The inhibitory effects of thymoquinone (TQ) on activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were studied in vitro. Human proximal tubular epithelial cells (pTECs) were cultivated and stimulated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and the effects of TQ were studied. A significant reduction of AGE-induced NF-kappaB-activation and Il-6 expression was observed. This points to potential antioxidative qualities of TQ.
Thymoquinone supplementation prevents the development of gentamicin-induced acute renal toxicity in rats.
1. The present study investigated the possible protective effects of thymoquinone (TQ), a compound derived from Nigella sativa with strong anti-oxidant properties, against gentamicin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity. 2. A total of 40 adult male Wistar albino rats was divided into four groups. Rats in the first group were injected daily with normal saline (2.5 mL/kg, i.p.) for 8 consecutive days, whereas rats in the second group received TQ (50 mg/L in drinking water) for 8 consecutive days. Animals in the third group were injected daily with GM (80 mg/kg, i.p.) for 8 consecutive days, whereas animals in the fourth group received a combination of GM (80 mg/kg, i.p.) and TQ (50 mg/L in drinking water) for 8 consecutive days. 3. Gentamicin resulted in a significant increase in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and total nitrate/nitrite (NOx) and a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and ATP levels in kidney tissues. 4. Interestingly, TQ supplementation resulted in a complete reversal of the GM-induced increase in BUN, creatinine, TBARS and NOx and decrease in GSH, GPx, CAT and ATP to control values. Moreover, histopathological examination of kidney tissues confirmed the biochemical data, wherein TQ supplementation prevents GM-induced degenerative changes in kidney tissues. 5. Data from the present study suggest that TQ supplementation prevents the development of GM-induced acute renal failure by a mechanism related, at least in part, to its ability to decrease oxidative stress and to preserve the activity of the anti-oxidant enzymes, as well as it ability to prevent the energy decline in kidney tissues.