Dr. Weeks Comment: The 4 most important words for anyone dealing with cancer are…. “Cancer Spreads by Inflammation”. Therefore, stopping inflammation is the primary therapeutic goal of people fighting cancer. Also remember that your main target is not the cancer TUMOR cell but the cancer STEM cell. This is essential because while chemo and radiation kill the cancer TUMOR cells, they actually hurt you by making the dangerous cells, the cancer STEM cells “more numerous and more virulent”. Take your safe and powerful seed drinks for anti-inflammation and detoxification!
Radiation and inflammation.
Semin Radiat Oncol. 2015 Jan;25(1):4-10. doi: 10.1016/j.semradonc.2014.07.007.
The immune system has the power to modulate the expression of radiation-induced normal and tumor tissue damage. On the one hand, it can contribute to cancer cure, and on the other hand, it can influence acute and late radiation side effects, which in many ways resemble acute and chronic inflammatory disease states. The way radiation-induced inflammation feeds into adaptive antigen-specific immune responses adds another dimension to the tumor-host cross talk during radiation therapy and to possible radiation-driven autoimmune responses. Understanding how radiation affects inflammation and immunity is therefore critical if we are to effectively manipulate these forces for benefit in radiation oncology treatments.
Radiation takes its Toll.
Cancer Lett. 2015 Nov 28;368(2):238-45. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2015.03.031. Epub 2015 Mar 25.
The ability to recognize and respond to universal molecular patterns on invading microorganisms allows our immune system to stay on high alert, sensing danger to our self-integrity. Our own damaged cells and tissues in pathological situations activate similar warning systems as microbes. In this way, the body is able to mount a response that is appropriate to the danger. Toll-like receptors are at the heart of this pattern recognition system that initiates innate pro-oxidant, pro-inflammatory signaling cascades and ultimately bridges recognition of danger to adaptive immunity. The acute inflammatory lesions that are formed segue into resolution of inflammation, repair and healing or, more dysfunctionally, into chronic inflammation, autoimmunity, excessive tissue damage and carcinogenesis. Redox is at the nexus of this decision making process and is the point at which ionizing radiation initially intercepts to trigger similar responses to self-damage. In this review we discuss our current understanding of how radiation-damaged cells interact with Toll-like receptors and how the immune systems interprets these radiation-induced danger signals in the context of whole-body exposures and during local tumor irradiation.
Radiotherapy-Induced Changes in the Systemic Immune and Inflammation Parameters of Head and Neck Cancer Patients.
Balázs K1, et al
Cancers (Basel). 2019 Sep 6;11(9). pii: E1324. doi: 10.3390/cancers11091324.
Though radiotherapy is a local therapy, it has systemic effects mainly influencing immune and inflammation processes. This has important consequences in the long-term prognosis and therapy individualization. Our objective was to investigate immune and inflammation-related changes in the peripheral blood of head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Peripheral blood cells, plasma and blood cell-derived RNA were isolated from 23 patients before and at two time points after radiotherapy and cellular immune parameters, plasma protein changes and gene expression alterations were studied. Increased regulatory T cells and increased CTLA4 and PD-1 expression on CD4 cells indicated an immune suppression induced by the malignant condition, which was accentuated by radiotherapy. Circulating dendritic cells were strongly elevated before treatment and were not affected by radiotherapy. Decreased endoglin levels in the plasma of patients before treatment were further decreased by radiotherapy. Expression of the FXDR, SESN1, GADD45, DDB2 and MDM2 radiation-response genes were altered in the peripheral blood cells of patients after radiotherapy. All changes were long-lasting, detectable one month after radiotherapy. In conclusion we demonstrated radiotherapy-induced changes in systemic immune parameters of head and neck cancer patients and proposed markers suitable for patient stratification worth investigating in larger patient cohorts.
Radiation-induced fibrosis: mechanisms and implications for therapy.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015 Nov;141(11):1985-94. doi: 10.1007/s00432-015-1974-6. Epub 2015 Apr 25.
Radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is a long-term side effect of external beam radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. It results in a multitude of symptoms that significantly impact quality of life. Understanding the mechanisms of RIF-induced changes is essential to developing effective strategies to prevent long-term disability and discomfort following radiation therapy. In this review, we describe the current understanding of the etiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis, treatment, and directions of future therapy for this condition.
Although RIF is widely prevalent among patients undergoing radiation therapy and significantly impacts quality of life, there is still much to learn about its pathogenesis and mechanisms. Current treatments have stemmed from this understanding, and it is anticipated that further elucidation will be essential for the development of more effective therapies.