Meta-Analysis Clin Nutr. 2019 Jun;38(3):1067-1075. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.04.015. Epub 2018 May 8.
Dairy intake and acne development: A meta-analysis of observational studies
- PMID: 29778512
- DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.04.015
Background & aims: In the past, some observational studies have been carried out on the relationship between milk and dairy intake and risk of acne occurrence; however, their results were conflicting. This study is a meta-analysis and dose-response analysis designed to evaluate the relationship between milk and dairy products and acne development.
Materials & methods: Data of the study were searched and collected from Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase databases. Study design, sex, age, exposure (i.e. dairy, milk, yogurt, cheese), dietary assessment method, acne ascertainment, total sample size, number of total subjects and cases in each category of exposure intake, OR, RR and PR with 95% CI in each category of exposure intake and adjusted variables were extracted.
Results: Highest compared with lowest category of dairy (OR: 2.61, 95% CI: 1.20 to 5.67), total milk (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.31 to 1.66), low-fat milk (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.43) and skim milk (OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.34 to 2.47) intake significantly was associated with the presence of acne. Results of dose-response analysis revealed a significant linear relationship between dairy, whole milk and skim milk and risk of acne and nonlinear association between dairy, milk, low-fat milk and skim milk intake and acne.
Conclusion: In this meta-analysis we found a positive relationship between dairy, total milk, whole milk, low-fat and skim milk consumption and acne occurrence. In contrary, no significant association between yogurt/cheese and acne development was observed.
Review Nutrients 2018 Aug 9;10(8):1049. doi: 10.3390/nu10081049.
Dairy Intake and Acne Vulgaris: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 78,529 Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults
Free PMC article
A meta-analysis can help inform the debate about the epidemiological evidence on dairy intake and development of acne. A systematic literature search of PubMed from inception to 11 December 2017 was performed to estimate the association of dairy intake and acne in children, adolescents, and young adults in observational studies. We estimated the pooled random effects odds ratio (OR) (95% CI), heterogeneity (I²-statistics, Q-statistics), and publication bias. We included 14 studies (n = 78,529; 23,046 acne-cases/55,483 controls) aged 7⁻30 years. ORs for acne were 1.25 (95% CI: 1.15⁻1.36; p = 6.13 × 10-8) for any dairy, 1.22 (1.08⁻1.38; p = 1.62 × 10-3) for full-fat dairy, 1.28 (1.13⁻1.44; p = 8.23 × 10-5) for any milk, 1.22 (1.06⁻1.41; p = 6.66 × 10-3) for whole milk, 1.32 (1.16⁻1.52; p = 4.33 × 10-5) for low-fat/skim milk, 1.22 (1.00⁻1.50; p = 5.21 × 10-2) for cheese, and 1.36 (1.05⁻1.77; p = 2.21 × 10-2) for yogurt compared to no intake. ORs per frequency of any milk intake were 1.24 (0.95⁻1.62) by 2⁻6 glasses per week, 1.41 (1.05⁻1.90) by 1 glass per day, and 1.43 (1.09⁻1.88) by ≥2 glasses per day compared to intake less than weekly. Adjusted results were attenuated and compared unadjusted. There was publication bias (p = 4.71 × 10-3), and heterogeneity in the meta-analyses were explained by dairy and study characteristics. In conclusion, any dairy, such as milk, yogurt, and cheese, was associated with an increased OR for acne in individuals aged 7⁻30 years. However, results should be interpreted with caution due to heterogeneity and bias across studies.