A fib is made worse by inflammation.

Dr. Weeks’ Comment:  Atrial fibrillation can be caused by many things,  but the important take home message for the clinician is that atrial fibrillation is made worse by inflammation.  Here below are a few peer-reviewed scientific articles which clarify that a fib is essentially an inflammatory process.  Search at PubMed  for “fibrillation and inflammation” and you discover 2879 articles declaring this association.

Therefore, a responsible clinician would start with safe and powerful anti-inflammatory foods like black cumin seeds and synergistic blends which protect against worsening of this cardiac problem.


Nat Rev Cardiol. 2015 Apr;12(4):230-43. doi: 10.1038/nrcardio.2015.2. Epub 2015 Jan 27.

Inflammation and the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation

Yu-Feng Hu  1 , et al


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. However, the development of preventative therapies for AF has been disappointing. The infiltration of immune cells and proteins that mediate the inflammatory response in cardiac tissue and circulatory processes is associated with AF. Furthermore, the presence of inflammation in the heart or systemic circulation can predict the onset of AF and recurrence in the general population, as well as in patients after cardiac surgery, cardioversion, and catheter ablation. Mediators of the inflammatory response can alter atrial electrophysiology and structural substrates, thereby leading to increased vulnerability to AF. Inflammation also modulates calcium homeostasis and connexins, which are associated with triggers of AF and heterogeneous atrial conduction. Myolysis, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and the activation of fibrotic pathways via fibroblasts, transforming growth factor-β and matrix metalloproteases are also mediated by inflammatory pathways, which can all contribute to structural remodelling of the atria. The development of thromboembolism, a detrimental complication of AF, is also associated with inflammatory activity. Understanding the complex pathophysiological processes and dynamic changes of AF-associated inflammation might help to identify specific anti-inflammatory strategies for the prevention of AF.


Circ J. 2015;79(3):495-502. doi: 10.1253/circj.CJ-15-0138. Epub 2015 Feb 16.

Role of inflammation in atrial fibrillation pathophysiology and management

Masahide Harada  1 ,et al


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common clinically relevant arrhythmia, but the methods available for treating AF and its complications (of which the most important is thrombogenesis), as well as for assessing AF risk and underlying pathophysiology, are largely limited. Emerging evidence suggests a significant role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of AF. That evidence includes elevated serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers in AF subjects, the expression of inflammatory markers in cardiac tissues of AF patients and animal models of AF, and beneficial effects of anti-inflammatory drugs in experimental AF paradigms. Inflammation is suggested to be linked to various pathological processes, such as oxidative stress, apoptosis, and fibrosis, that promote AF substrate formation. Inflammation has also been associated with endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and coagulation cascade activation, leading to thrombogenesis. Thus, inflammation may contribute to both the occurrence/maintenance of AF and its thromboembolic complications. Here, we review the evidence for a role of inflammation and inflammatory biomarkers in the risk management and treatment of AF. We also summarize the current knowledge of inflammation-dependent cellular and molecular mechanisms in AF pathophysiology and their potential as therapeutic targets.


JACC Heart Fail. 2019 Jun;7(6):447-456. doi: 10.1016/j.jchf.2019.03.005.

Heart Failure and Atrial Fibrillation, Like Fire and Fury

Matthew A Carlisle  1 , et al


Heart failure and atrial fibrillation are 2 common cardiovascular disorders that frequently complicate one another and exert a significant detrimental effect on cardiovascular health and well-being. Both heart failure and atrial fibrillation continue to increase in prevalence as the risk factors underlying each condition become more common. This review encompasses what is currently known about the epidemiology and pathophysiology of these comorbidities along with incorporation of landmark trials that have contributed to current guidelines. The focus is on clinically relevant considerations, including the contribution of inflammation in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation and heart failure. We explore the emerging role of catheter ablation relative to medical therapy in the management of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, along with indications for biventricular pacing modalities in cardiac resynchronization therapy. We discuss current guideline-directed therapies and how practice models and national recommendations will likely change based on the most recent randomized controlled trials.


Curr Med Chem . 2019;26(5):873-887. doi: 10.2174/0929867324666170830100424.

Biomarkers in Atrial Fibrillation and Heart Failure

Evangelos Oikonomou  1 , et al

Affiliations expand


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice and an important contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the exact mechanisms behind AF are not completely elucidated, the underlying pathophysiological changes have been well described. Predisposal factors for AF include the older age, the increased left atrial size, the decreased left atrial function, the presence of heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction and the presence of coronary heart disease or pulmonary or mitral valve disease. In addition to these factors, emerging evidence demonstrate that myocardial strain, fibrosis and inflammation, are associated with AF as well as the pathogenesis of the arrhythmia. The natruretic peptide system including Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP), Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) and C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP) is indicative of the level of myocardial strain which may predispose to AF. As a result, the aforementioned peptides are increased in AF patients. The levels of myocardial fibrosis biomarkers, such as ST2 and Galectin-3, are elevated suggesting atrial structural abnormalities, while the increased levels of CRP and Interleukin-6 supplement the inflammatory profile of AF patients. Emerging data for the aforementioned biomarkers are discussed in the present review.


Eur Heart J. 2020 Mar 7;41(10):1120-1122. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehz953.

Infection and atrial fibrillation: inflammation begets AF

Christopher John Boos  1   2   3


Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2017 Sep 29;16(1):120. doi: 10.1186/s12933-017-0604-9.

Oxidative stress and inflammation as central mediators of atrial fibrillation in obesity and diabetes

Basil S Karam  1 , et al


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in humans. Several risk factors promote AF, among which diabetes mellitus has emerged as one of the most important. The growing recognition that obesity, diabetes and AF are closely intertwined disorders has spurred major interest in uncovering their mechanistic links. In this article we provide an update on the growing evidence linking oxidative stress and inflammation to adverse atrial structural and electrical remodeling that leads to the onset and maintenance of AF in the diabetic heart. We then discuss several therapeutic strategies to improve atrial excitability by targeting pathways that control oxidative stress and inflammation.

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