Estrogen drives Prostate Cancer

Dr.  Weeks’ Comment:

Everyone is taught in medical school that testosterone drives prostate cancer and hence men suffer through the testosterone depleting protocols (ADT=androgen deprivation therapy) but the science is not settled.  It seems that testosterone is only dangerous when it metabolizes to the known carcinogen estrogen which happens as men age, So now we consider not blocking testosterone but only blocking its conversion to estrogen – the known carcinogen.  Review the following articles and think for yourself.



A perspective on the role of estrogen in hormone-induced prostate carcinogenesis

Maarten C Bosland 1

  • Cancer Lett. 2013 Jun 28;334(1):28-33.


Androgens are thought to cause prostate cancer, but the precise mechanisms by which they do so are unclear. Data, mostly from animal studies, suggest that for androgens to cause prostate cancer they must be aromatized to estrogen and act in concert with these estrogen metabolites. Androgen-receptor mediated activity of androgens and estrogen receptor-mediated effects of estrogen metabolites are likely to be necessary, but estrogen genotoxicity appears to be a probable critical factor as well. Only when all these mechanisms are active, may prostate carcinogenesis result. Convincing proof-of-concept studies are needed to definitively test this concept which, if proven, may lead to clinically feasible chemoprevention approaches interfering with these mechanisms.



Estrogen and prostate cancer: an eclipsed truth in an androgen-dominated scenario

Giuseppe Carruba 1

J Cellular Biochemistry 2007



Prostate cancer is the commonest non-skin cancer in men. Incidence and mortality rates of this tumor vary strikingly throughout the world. Although several factors have been implicated to explain this remarkable variation, lifestyle and dietary factors may play a dominant role, with sex hormones behaving as intermediaries between exogenous factors and molecular targets in development and progression of prostate cancer. Human prostate cancer is generally considered a paradigm of androgen-dependent tumor; however, estrogen role in both normal and malignant prostate appears to be equally important. The association between plasma androgens and prostate cancer remains contradictory and mostly not compatible with the androgen hypothesis. Similar evidence apply to estrogens, although the ratio of androgen to estrogen in plasma declines with age. Apart from methodological problems, a major issue is to what extent circulating hormones can be considered representative of their intraprostatic levels. Both nontumoral and malignant human prostate tissues and cells are endowed with key enzymes of steroid metabolism, including 17betahydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17betaHSD), 5beta-reductase, 3alpha/3betaHSD, and aromatase. A divergent expression and/or activity of these enzymes may eventually lead to a differential prostate accumulation of steroid derivatives having distinct biological activities, as it occurs for hydroxylated estrogens in the human breast. Locally produced or metabolically transformed estrogens may differently affect proliferative activity of prostate cancer cells. Aberrant aromatase expression and activity has been reported in prostate tumor tissues and cells, implying that androgen aromatization to estrogens may play a role in prostate carcinogenesis or tumor progression. Interestingly, many genes encoding for steroid enzymes are polymorphic, although only a few studies have supported their relation with risk of prostate cancer. In animal model systems estrogens, combined with androgens, appear to be required for the malignant transformation of prostate epithelial cells. Although the mechanisms underlying the hormonal induction of prostate cancer in experimental animals remain uncertain, there is however evidence to support the assumption that long term administration of androgens and estrogens results in an estrogenic milieu in rat prostates and in the ensuing development of dysplasia and cancer. Both androgen and estrogen have been reported to stimulate proliferation of cultured prostate cancer cells, primarily through receptor-mediated effects. As for estrogens, the two major receptor types, ERalpha and ERbeta, are expressed in both normal and diseased human prostate, though with a different cellular localization. Since these two receptors are different in terms of ligand binding, heterodimerization, transactivation, and estrogen response element activity, it is likely that an imbalance of their expression may be critical to determine the ultimate estrogen effects on prostate cancer cells. In prostate cancer, ERbeta activation appears to limit cell proliferation directly or through ERalpha inhibition, and loss of ERbeta has been consistently associated with tumor progression. Several splicing variants of both ERalpha and ERbeta exist. Little is known about their expression and function in the human prostate, although reciprocal regulation and interaction with gene promoter both warrant further investigation. In summary, although multiple consistent evidence suggests that estrogens are critical players in human prostate cancer, their role has been only recently reconsidered, being eclipsed for years by an androgen-dominated interest.


Estrogens and prostate cancer

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2019 May;22(2):185-194.

Ryan W Dobbs 1,

DOI: 10.1038/s41391-018-0081-6


Background: Hormonal influences such as androgens and estrogens are known contributors in the development and progression of prostate cancer (CaP). While much of the research to the hormonal nature of CaP has focused on androgens, estrogens also have critical roles in CaP development, physiology as well as a potential therapeutic intervention.

Results: Estrogenic influences in CaP include synthetic, endogenous, fungi and plant-derived compounds, and represent a family of sex hormones, which cross hydrophobic cell membranes and bind to membrane-associated receptors and estrogen receptors that localize to the nucleus triggering changes in gene expression in various organ systems.

Conclusions: Estrogens represent a under-recognized contributor in CaP development and progression. Further research in this topic may provide opportunities for identification of environmental influencers as well as providing novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of CaP.


Role of estrogens in development of prostate cancer

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004 Nov;92(4):297-305.

doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2004.10.016. Epub 2004 Dec 19.

Pirkko L Härkönen 1Sari I Mäkelä

DOI: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2004.10.016


Estrogens have previously been extensively used in prostate cancer treatment. Serious side effects, primarily in cardiovascular system have, however, limited their use. The therapeutic effect of estrogen in preventing prostate cancer growth was mainly obtained indirectly by feedback inhibition of the hypothalamic release of LRH leading to lowered serum androgen levels and castration like effects. Prostate tissue is also most probably a target for direct regulation by estrogens. Prostate contains estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta), which are localized characteristically in stroma and epithelium, respectively. The physiological function of these receptors is not known but there is evidence of the role of estrogens in prostatic carcinogenesis. Developing prostate seems particularly sensitive to increased level of endogenous and/or exogenous estrogens. Perinatal or neonatal exposure of rats and mice to estrogens leads to “imprinting” of prostate associated with increased proliferation, inflammation and dysplastic epithelial changes later in life. Prolonged treatment of adult rodents with estrogens along with androgens also leads to epithelial metaplasia, PIN-like lesions and even adenocarcinoma of prostate speaking for the role of estrogen in prostate cancer development. Recent results concerning antiestrogen inhibition of prostate cancer development beyond PIN-type lesions in transgenic mouse models further suggests a role for estrogens in prostate cancer progression. These results also suggest that direct inhibition of estrogen action at the level of prostate tissue may provide an important novel principle of development of prostate cancer therapies.



Estrogens and antiestrogens as etiological factors and therapeutics for prostate cancer

Shuk-Mei Ho 1Yuet-Kin LeungIrving Chung

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Nov;1089:177-93.

doi: 10.1196/annals.1386.005.

DOI: 10.1196/annals.1386.005


Mounting evidence supports a key role played by estrogen or estrogen in synergy with an androgen, in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa). New experimental data suggest that this process could begin as early as prenatal life. During adulthood, estrogen carcinogenicity is believed to be mediated by the combined effects of hormone-induced, unscheduled cell proliferation and bioactivation of estrogens to genotoxic carcinogens. Increased bioavailability of estrogen through age-dependent increases in conversion from androgen could also be a contributing factor. Individual variations and race-/ethnic-based differences in circulating or locally formed estrogens or in tissue estrogen responsiveness may explain differential PCa risk among individuals or different populations. Estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta are the main mediators of estrogen action in the prostate. However, ER-beta is the first ER subtype expressed in the fetal prostate. During cancer development, ER-beta expression is first lost as tumors progress into high grade in the primary site. Yet, its reexpression occurs in all metastatic cases of PCa. A change in cytosine methylation in a regulatory CpG island located in the proximal promoter of ER-beta may constitute an “on/off” switch for reversible regulation of ER-beta expression. =



Testosterone Therapy in Men With Prostate Cancer

Eur Urol. 2016 May;69(5):894-903. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2015.12.005. Epub 2015 Dec 21.


Alan L Kaplan  1 Jim C Hu  2 Abraham Morgentaler  3 ,DOI: 10.1016/j.eururo.2015.12.005



Context: The use of testosterone therapy in men with prostate cancer was previously contraindicated, although recent data challenge this axiom. Over the past 2 decades, there has been a dramatic paradigm shift in beliefs, attitude, and treatment of testosterone deficiency in men with prostate cancer.

Objective: To summarize and analyze current literature regarding the effect of testosterone replacement in men with prostate cancer.

Evidence acquisition: We conducted a Medline search to identify all publications related to testosterone therapy in both treated and untreated prostate cancer.

Evidence synthesis: The historical notion that increasing testosterone was responsible for prostate cancer growth was based on elegant yet limited studies from the 1940s and anecdotal case reports. Current evidence reveals that high endogenous androgen levels do not increase the risk of a prostate cancer diagnosis. Similarly, testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency does not appear to increase prostate cancer risk or the likelihood of a more aggressive disease at prostate cancer diagnosis. Androgen receptor saturation (the saturation model) appears to account for this phenomenon. Men who received testosterone therapy after treatment for localized prostate cancer do not appear to suffer higher rates of recurrence or worse outcomes; although studies to date are limited. Early reports of men on active surveillance/watchful waiting treated with testosterone have not identified adverse progression events.

Conclusions: An improved understanding of the negative effects of testosterone deficiency on health and health-related quality of life-and the ability of testosterone therapy to mitigate these effects-has triggered a re-evaluation of the role testosterone plays in prostate cancer. An important paradigm shift has occurred within the field, in which testosterone therapy may now be regarded as a viable option for selected men with prostate cancer suffering from testosterone deficiency.

Patient summary: In this article, we review and summarize the existing literature surrounding the use of testosterone therapy in men with prostate cancer. Historically, testosterone was contraindicated in men with a history of prostate cancer. We show that this contraindication is unfounded and, with careful monitoring, its use is safe in that regard.


Editorial Comment

J Urol. 2022 May;207(5):1028. doi: 10.1097/JU.0000000000002384.01. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Abraham Morgentaler  1

·       Low Serum Testosterone in Men with Newly Diagnosed Androgen-Deprivation Therapy-Naïve Prostate Cancer and Its Relationship to Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A RADICAL-PC Substudy.

PMID: 34978211


Morgentaler: the debate continues

CMAJ. 1986 Feb 1;134(3):212. PMID: 3942919




The History of Testosterone and the Evolution of its Therapeutic Potential

Sex Med Rev. 2020 Apr;8(2):286-296. doi: 10.1016/j.sxmr.2018.03.002. Epub 2018 Apr 13.


Abraham Morgentaler  1 Abdulmaged Traish  2


Introduction: Testosterone therapy has been controversial since its synthesis in the 1930s to the present day. Testosterone’s history provides depth and context for current controversies.

Aim: To review the history of testosterone therapy from its initial synthesis in the 1930s to the modern day.

Methods: Expert review of the literature.

Main outcome measures: Impactful events in the history of testosterone.

Results: By the 1940s there was already a fascinating literature that described the many symptomatic benefits of testosterone therapy that are recognized today. Numerous early reports suggested testosterone therapy improved angina pectoris and peripheral vascular disease. The assertion by Huggins and Hodges (Cancer Res 1941;1:293-297) in 1941 that testosterone activated prostate cancer (PCa) cast a pall for the next 70 years. The introduction of the radioimmunoassay in the 1970s shifted the diagnosis of testosterone deficiency from signs and symptoms to an undue emphasis on blood test results. The fear of PCa was the primary obstacle to the adoption of testosterone therapy for decades. Prescription rates increased as accumulated evidence showed testosterone therapy was not associated with increased PCa risks. The observation that androgenic stimulation of PCa reaches a maximum at relatively low testosterone concentrations-the saturation model-provided the theoretical framework for understanding the relation between androgens and PCa and led to multiple case series documenting reassuring results of testosterone therapy in men with PCa. Recent concerns regarding cardiovascular risks also have diminished because new evidence suggests testosterone therapy might actually be cardioprotective. In 2016 the Testosterone Trials provided high-quality evidence of multiple benefits of testosterone therapy, nearly all of which had been recognized by clinicians by 1940.

Conclusions: If the past has any lessons for the future, it is likely that research will continue to demonstrate health benefits of testosterone therapy, while it remains one of the most controversial topics in medicine.



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