The inflamed gut and what NOT to do.

Dr. Weeks’ Comment: The first article describes how inflammation leads to absorption of undigested allergenic substances which integrative doctors term “leaky gut” and which corporate conventional doctors think does not exist. This explains why the anti-inflammatory diet in general and the Seeds of Eden in particular can quench the inflammation and restore health and integrity to the cells lining the gastro-intestinal tract. 


J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1997 Feb;24(2):162-9.

IFN-gamma enhances macromolecular transport across Peyer’s patches in suckling rats: implications for natural immune responses to dietary antigens early in life.



The capacity to generate (interferon-gamma) IFN-gamma, a potent immunoregulatory and inflammatory cytokine, is low in neonates and deficient in patients with food allergy.


We investigated the effect of IFN-gamma on antigen transport in the gut. In experiment I rat pups were randomized into two groups at the age of 14 days i.e., before gut maturation: Group IFN was given intraperitoneally recombinant rat IFN-gamma on days 14, 16, 18, 20. In experiment II, rats were randomized into two groups at the age of 26 days, i.e., after gut maturation: Group IFN received the IFN-gamma treatment on days 26, 28, 30, 32. Controls in both experiments received sterile saline. The absorption of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) across jejunal segments with and without Peyer’s patches was studied in Ussing chambers on days 21 and 33 for experiments I and II, respectively.


In experiment I, the absorption of intact HRP across both types of segments was significantly increased in Group IFN compared to controls. The mean (95% confidence interval) rate of degraded HRP absorption across patch-containing segments in Group IFN was significantly greater than in controls, 4420 (3162-6179) in comparison to 1550 (633-3790); F = 8.96, p = 0.009.


IFN-gamma increases macromolecular transport before gut maturation particularly across Peyer’s patches. This Peyer’s patch-targeted effect can be important eliciting mucosal immune responses against dietary antigens early in life and aiding their immune exclusion.

AND this article suggests we can be harm by offering the common supplement NAC  (which converts to glutathione). Live and learn! (and apologize to patients we have harmed unwittingly).

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1999 Jan-Feb;23(1):19-23.

Role of intestinal mucus on the uptake of latex beads by Peyer’s patches and on their transport to mesenteric lymph nodes in rats.



The effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as a mucolytic agent on the uptake of fluorescent polystyrene microparticles by Peyer’s patches, on intestinal permeability, and on subsequent transport to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were investigated to establish the role of mucus gel layer in this process.


Twenty rats were divided into two groups: control (n = 10) and NAC (n = 10). Fluorescent polystyrene latex beads of 3.2+/-0.2 microm in diameter were used as a probe for measuring the previously mentioned parameters. The solution of latex beads (0.1 mL) was injected into a 2-cm length of ileal loop containing Peyer’s patches, with 0.1 mL of saline (control group) or with 0.1 mL of NAC solution (NAC group) within 10 cm proximal from the ileocaecal valve. Intestinal loops, portal blood, and neighboring MLNs were taken within 1 hour of injection. Intestinal sections were stained by periodic acid-Schiff reagent. Peyer’s patches and MLNs were analyzed for the count of particles by image analysis using a confocal laser scanning microscope.


Morphologically, periodic acid-Schiff positive uniform mucus gel was present in front of Peyer’s patches of the control group, and mucus gel layer was disrupted and noncontinuous in the NAC group. The number of particles within Peyer’s patches and MLNs in the NAC group was significantly higher than that in the control group (p<.001). Intestinal permeability of latex beads in the NAC group was significantly higher than that in the control group (p<.001).


These data suggest that the mucus gel layer located in front of Peyer’s patches is one of the important factors for the uptake of noxious macromolecules, and this in turn plays a major role on small intestinal permeability and subsequent translocation to MLNs.

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