Dr. Weeks’ Comment: Inflammation drives degeneration and deterioration. Now you can quantitate how ablaze you are!
Re: Cytokines post vaccination
2016 / Detection of inflammatory biomarkers in saliva and urine: Potential in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment for chronic diseases
Detection of inflammatory biomarkers in saliva and urine: Potential in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment for chronic diseases
Inflammation is a part of the complex biological response of inflammatory cells to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, irritants, or damaged cells. This inflammation has been linked to several chronic diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. Major biomarkers of inflammation include tumor necrosis factor, interleukins (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, chemokines, cyclooxygenase, 5-lipooxygenase, and C-reactive protein, all of which are regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB. Although examining inflammatory biomarkers in blood is a standard practice, its identification in saliva and/or urine is more convenient and non-invasive. In this review, we aim to (1) discuss the detection of these inflammatory biomarkers in urine and saliva; (2) advantages of using salivary and urinary inflammatory biomarkers over blood, while also weighing on the challenges and/or limitations of their use; (3) examine their role(s) in connection with diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and drug development for several chronic diseases with inflammatory consequences, including cancer; and (4) explore the use of innovative salivary and urine based biosensor strategies that may permit the testing of biomarkers quickly, reliably, and cost-effectively, in a decentralized setting.